C. Nutritional supplements
1. Vitamin A, E, C, D
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.
b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.
d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
a.1. It is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A that inhibits cancer cell in experiment. Beta-carotene also neutralize singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replicative causes of cancers.
a.2. Cell communication
Researcher found that beta-carotene enhances the communication between cell can reduce the risk of cancer by making cells division more reliable.
a.3. Immune system
Beta-carotene promotes the immune system in identifying the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by increasing the quality of MHC2 protein in maintaining optimal function of white cells.
a.4. Polyunsaturated fat
Researchers found that beta-carotene also inhibits the oxidation of polyunsaturated fat and lipoprotein in the blood that reduce the risk of plaques build up onto the arterial walls, causing heart diseases and stroke.
a.5. There are more benefits of beta-carotene.
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrin are a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. it has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. As he used vitamin C and flavonoids to heal the breakage of capillaries, which caused swelling and obstruction of blood flow. Most plants have more than one group or type act as predominate.
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants. it helps to neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria and cancerous cells, but when it is over produced, it causes the production peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA, Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite due to reduction of enzyme expression.
Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant plant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production, thus it can be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity in human.
4. CopperCopper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver, muscle and bone. Deficiency of copper can often cause the anemia-like symptoms. However, ingesting too much of it can lead to generator of free radicals that can damage DNA .
a. Antimicrobial and viral Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and inflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells.
b. Antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Copper is vital for the making of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by protecting the cell membranes from free radicals. In fact, it outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. Research found in experiment, Mice lacking SOD1(Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]) develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3(Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] ) do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury and mice lacking SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) die before birth. The above result enhances the importance of the presence of copper in improving life span and living health in human as well.
5. Glutathione (GSH)
Glutathione (GSH), a polypeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues beside is best known for its role in enhancing the immune system in protect our body from bacteria and virus, it also is an antioxidant that helps to prevent damage caused by oxidation of cellular components such as free radicals and peroxides by converting to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), leading to generation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins of which reduces the risk of oxidative DNA damage and subsequently the individual’s risk of cancer susceptibility.
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2−, with one unpaired electron) free radicals.
Although superoxide is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome.
Selenium , a trace mineral plays an important and indirect role as an antioxidant by fulfilling its function as a necessary constituent of glutathione peroxidase and in production of glutathione, that inhibits the damage caused by oxidation of free radical hydrogen peroxide, leading to aging effects.
a. Immune system
Selenium enhances the immune function that fighting off the attack of AID virus by promoting the function of interleukin 2 and T-cells.
Study showed that levels pf selenium in blood test is associated with high rate of cancer, including skin cancer.
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