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Tuesday, 24 December 2013

Dietary Minerals - Calcium (1)

Calcium, a trace mineral plays an important role in build and maintain strong bones and teeth, found abundantly in meat, poultry, fish,  nut, seeds, bean, etc. As we age, calcium is absorbed less effectively.

1.  Osteoporosis: vitamin D and calcium
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that predisposes to fractures. Sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for prevention and treatment. According to the study of 28,406 respondents aged 50 or older to the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)--Healthy Aging, found that
In 2009, 19.2% of women and 3.4% of men aged 50 or older reported having been diagnosed with osteoporosis; the 2004 rates were similar. Age, sex and household income were associated with the probability of reporting osteoporosis. In 2004, based on dietary and supplement intake, 45% to 69% of the population aged 50 or older had inadequate intake of calcium, and 54% to 66% had inadequate intake of vitamin D(1).

2. Vitamin D3, calcium and reduced risk of fractures and falls
According to the study by the research team of Dr. Cranney A, in most trials, the effects of vitamin D and calcium could not be separated. Vitamin D(3) (>700 IU/day) with calcium supplementation compared to placebo has a small beneficial effect on BMD, and reduces the risk of fractures and falls although benefit may be confined to specific subgroups. Vitamin D intake above current dietary reference intakes was not reported to be associated with an increased risk of adverse events. However, most trials of higher doses of vitamin D were not adequately designed to assess long-term harms(2).

3. Vitamin D, calcium and the importance of other vitamins
Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. According to the study by American University of Beirut, deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D(3).

4. Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults
In the review of Medline (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) search conducted for studies published on the relationship between milk, dairy products, or calcium intake and bone mineralization or fracture risk in children and young adults (1-25 years) yielded 58 studies: 22 cross-sectional studies; 13 retrospective studies; 10 longitudinal prospective studies; and 13 randomized, controlled trials found to ne supported of nutrition guidelines focused specifically on increasing milk or other dairy product intake for promoting child and adolescent bone mineralization(4).

5. The dosage of calcium and life style risks
 According to the study by Aarhus University, secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by calcium and vitamin D insufficiency may reduce bone mass and strength and increase fracture risk and should be avoided. Since calcium supplementation has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications and renal stones, the dose should be tailored to the habitual daily calcium intake. Lifestyle-related risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and low body weight) should be addressed. The antifracture efficacy of antiresorptive and anabolic treatment for osteoporosis has not been documented in larger randomized controlled studies(5).

6.  Calcium and Physiology and cell biology of acupuncture
In the article presenting a novel model of acupuncture physiology based on cellular calcium activation by an acoustic shear wave (ASW) generated by the mechanical movement of the needle with an acupuncture needle was driven by a piezoelectric transducer at 100 Hz or below, showed that the cell level, the ASW activated intracellular Ca(2+) transients and oscillations in fibroblasts and endothelial, ventricular myocytes and neuronal PC-12 cells along with frequency-amplitude tuning and memory capabilities. In contrast with traditional acupuncture models, the signal source is derived from the total acoustic energy. ASW signaling makes use of the anisotropy of elasticity of tissues as its waveguides for transmission and that cell activation is not based on the nervous system(6).

7. Calcium and cell physiology
According to the study by the University of Florida,  in excitable cells, the coordination of changing Ca(2+) concentrations at global (cellular) and well-defined subcellular spaces through the course of membrane depolarization can now be conceptualized in the context of disease processes such as cardiac arrhythmogenesis. The spatial and temporal dimensions of Ca(2+) signaling are similarly important in non-excitable cells, such as endothelial and epithelial cells, to regulate multiple signaling pathways that participate in organ homeostasis as well as cellular organization and essential secretory processes(7).

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22106784
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18088161
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15741380
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23329464
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796340
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15821159