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Tuesday, 24 December 2013

Dietary Minerals - Boron(1)

Boron, a vital trace mineral found abundantly in Almond, Red Apple, Apricots, Avocado, Banana, Red kidneyBeans, etc., is necessary for the normal growth and health of the body. Boric acid has antiseptic and antiviral activity. Its aqueous solutions have been used as mouth-washes, eye-drops, skin lotions and cosmetics(1).

1. Boron and Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis and low bone mineral density affect millions of Americans. According to the study by Orlando Health, the majority of adults in North America have insufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium along with inadequate exercise. Physicians are aware that vitamin D, calcium and exercise are essential for maintenance of bone health. Physicians are less likely to be aware that dietary insufficiencies of magnesium, silicon, Vitamin K, and boron are also widely prevalent, and each of these essential nutrients is an important contributor to bone health(2). Other in the study to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis of 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, the preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p < 0.05) in boron and phosphorus concentrations in the urine of two hours between the groups. The model of linear regression analysis used showed a relationship between urinary concentrations of boron/creatinine index and calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis(2a).

2. Dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women
In the study to to examine the effects of aluminum, magnesium, and boron on major mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women, conducted by the  Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, showed that boron supplementation markedly reduced the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium; the depression seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Boron supplementation depressed the urinary excretion of phosphorus by the low-magnesium, but not by the adequate-magnesium, women. Boron supplementation markedly elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone; the elevation seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low(3). Other study found that increase in dietary intake of B from 0.25 to 3.25 mg/d has been reported to increase plasma oestradiol and testosterone and decrease urinary Ca excretion in postmenopausal women. Changing B intake from 0.33 to 3.33 mg/d had no effect on minerals, steroids or crosslinks. However, the LBD (low-B diet) appeared to induce hyperabsorption of Ca since positive Ca balances were found in combination with elevated urinary Ca excretion. This phenomenon may have inhibited or obscured any effect of B(3a).

3. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males
In the study to examine the effect of boron supplementation in 10 male bodybuilders, who  (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, with nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49, found that bBoth groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p < 0.01), lean body mass (p < 0.01), and one repetition maximum (RM) squat (p < 0.001) and one RM bench press (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all(4).

4. Boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels
In the study to evaluate the effect of boron supplementation in 19 male bodybuilders ages 20-27 years. Ten were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement while 9 were given a placebo every day for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on Days 1 and 49, found that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser trained bodybuilders, and that boron supplementation had no effect on these measures(5).

5. Boron and Fertility
In the study to investigate the consequences of exposure to three levels of boric acid on male rats reproduction, fertility, and progeny outcome, with emphasis on testicular DNA level and quality, by Ain Shams University, showed that the impact of boric acid exposure at dose 250 mg on male rats fertility was translated into increases in pre-implantation loss with a resulting decrease in the number of live fetuses/ litter. In addition to the significant alteration of biochemical measurements, observed at dose 250 mg, administration of boric acid at 500 mg caused testicular atrophy, severe damage of spermatogenesis, spermiation failure and significant reduction of Mg and Zn testicular levels. None of the male rats, treated with 500 mg/kg bwt, could impregnate untreated females, suggesting the occurrence of definitive loss of fertility(5a).

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Sources
(1) http://chemicalland21.com/industrialchem/inorganic/BORIC%20ACID.htm
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22523525
(2a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22524104 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3678698
(3a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8329361
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7889885
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8508192
(5a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23301826