Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Cirrhosis Preventions - The Phytochemicals

Cirrhosis is defined as a condition of irreversible scarring liver as a result of liver tissue by fibrosis due to final phase of chronic liver diseases of that can lead to poor function of the liver and liver failure. According to the statistics, Number of discharges with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis as the first-listed diagnosis: 101,000 in 2009 and Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.3 in 2010(a). Hepatitis B infection cause of the disease is very prevalent in South-East Asia.
Phytochemicals to prevent Cirrhosis
1. Emodin
Emodin  is a orange crystalline compound, C14H4O2(OH)3CH3 found in rhubarb and other plants.
In the study to investigate the role of emodin in protecting the liver against fibrogenesis caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats and to further explore the underlying mechanisms, showed that
Emodin protects the rat liver from CCl(4)-induced fibrogenesis by inhibiting HSC activation. Emodin might be a therapeutic antifibrotic agent for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis(58).

2. Hesperetin
Hesperetin is flavonoids derived from Citrus fruits. In the study to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of hesperetin (HTN) on cadmium (Cd) induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats, showed that HTN at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day exhibits significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotection compared with other two doses (10 and 20 mg/kg body weight/day). The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also supported that HTN (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue to near normal(59).

3. Silibinin
Silibinin (SB) is a major flavonolignan compound of silimarin and is found in milk thistle of Silybum marianum. In the study  to delineate the ameliorative role of silibinin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally treated with arsenic alone (5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) plus silibinin (75 mg/kg bw/day) for 4weeks, showed that administration of silibinin exhibited a significant reversal of arsenic-induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. All these changes were supported by reduction of DNA damage in hepatocytes and histopathological observations of the liver(60).

4. Diallyl tetrasulfide (DTS)
diallyl tetrasulfide (DTS) is a natural compound found abundantly in fresh and aged garlic. According to the study by Annamalai University, administration of DTS at 40 mg/kg body weight significantly normalised the activities of hepatic marker enzymes, compared to other doses of DTS (10 and 20 mg/kg body weight). In addition, DTS (40 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd and the level of lipid peroxidation, and restored the level of antioxidant defense in the liver. Histological studies also showed that administration of DTS to Cd-treated rats resulted in a marked improvement of hepatocytes morphology with mild portal inflammation(61).

5. Phyto-power dietary supplement 
Curcumin has been extensively studied for its therapeutic effects in a variety of disorders. Fermented soy consumption is associated with a low incidence rate of chronic diseases in many Asian countries. According to the study by the Chang Jung Christian University, phyto-power dietary supplement (50 or 100 mg kg(-1)) was administered by oral gavage daily for four weeks. Liver morphology, function, and fibrotic status were examined in DMN induced hepatic fibrogenesis. However, a phyto-power dietary supplement alleviated liver damage as indicated by histopathological examination of the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I, accompanied by the concomitant reduction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)(62).

6. Etc.
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(a) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/liverdis.htm 
(58) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19824107
(59) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134734
(60) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22229868
(61) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17698948
(62) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291610

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