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Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Cirrhosis Preventions - The Antioxidants

Cirrhosis is defined as a condition of irreversible scarring liver as a result of liver tissue by fibrosis due to final phase of chronic liver diseases of that can lead to poor function of the liver and liver failure. According to the statistics, Number of discharges with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis as the first-listed diagnosis: 101,000 in 2009 and Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.3 in 2010(a). Hepatitis B infection cause of the disease is very prevalent in South-East Asia.
Antioxidants to prevent Cirrhosis
1. Probiotics and antioxidants
In the study to to determine the effect of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 and antioxidants on intestinal flora, endotoxemia, and bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats, found that rats treated with antioxidants and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 showed a decrease in endotoxemia with respect to cirrhotic rats receiving water (P<0.05). Antioxidants alone or in combination with Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 can be useful in preventing bacterial translocation in cirrhosis(63).


2. Caryophyllene (CAR)
Caryophyllene (CAR) is a common constituent of the essential oil of numerous plants, vegetables, fruits and medicinal herbs, and has been used as a flavouring agent since the 1930 s. According to the study by Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, indicated that CAR significantly improved liver structure, and reduced fibrosis and the expression of Col1a1, Tgfb1 and Timp1 genes. Oxidative stress was used to establish a model of HSC activation with overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins. CAR (1 and 10 μm) increased cell viability and significantly reduced the expression of fibrotic marker genes. CAR, a sesquiterpene present in numerous plants and foods, is as a natural antioxidant that reduces carbon tetrachloride-mediated liver fibrosis and inhibits hepatic cell activation(64).

3. Vitamins C and E
Antioxidants vitamins C and E are free radical scavengers. In the study of undertaken to find the therapeutic efficacy of naringenin (NGN) plus vitamins C and E on Cd-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats, by Annamalai University, showed that treatment with NGN and vitamins C and E in combination more significantly improved the altered biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver of Cd-intoxicated rats than the NGN or vitamins C and E treatment alone(65).

4. Selenium
In the study to investigte the effect of selenium deficiency Effects, induced by thioacetamide, showed that thioacetamide (0.3 g/L) given in drinking water, as expected, caused a significant loss of selenium from the liver. It was accompanied by liver cirrhosis and a significant increase in the liver weight as well as liver to body weight ratio. A significant loss of selenium from spleen was also accompanied by an increase in its weight. Weights of lungs, testis and kidney, however, were not affected by thioacetamide and there was no change in their selenium content. Plasma levels of selenium were significantly reduced in the thioacetamide treated group. All these changes were confirmed to be due to selenium deficiency caused by thioacetamide, as supplementation with selenium reversed these changes. The mode of action of selenium is unknown but may involve anti-oxidant defense mechanisms(66).

5. Etc.
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Sources
(a) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/liverdis.htm
(63) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12217598
(64) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717234
(65) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21697638
(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9746205