Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Cirrhosis Preventions - The Diet

Cirrhosis is defined as a condition of irreversible scarring liver as a result of liver tissue by fibrosis due to final phase of chronic liver diseases of that can lead to poor function of the liver and liver failure. According to the statistics, Number of discharges with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis as the first-listed diagnosis: 101,000 in 2009 and Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.3 in 2010(a). Hepatitis B infection cause of the disease is very prevalent in South-East Asia.
A. Diets to prevent Cirrhosis
1. Grren tea
green tea exhibits potent protective effects against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in mice by inhibiting oxidative damage and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.
In the in vivo study to investiagte theantioxidant and antifibrotic properties of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) with a study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in male ICR mice, found that oral administration of green tea extract at doses of 125, 625 and 1250 mg/kg for 8 weeks significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls in the liver by at least 28% compared with that was induced by CCl(4) (1 mL/kg) in mice.(52).
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic environmental and industrial cumulative pollutant that affects many organs, especially the liver. In rat study, oral administration of green tea, along with cadmium significantly (p < 0.05) improves cadmium-induced liver dysfunction and stress oxidant in rats' liver(53).

2. Citrus fruits
Naringenin is a naturally occurring plant bioflavonoid found in citrus fruits, which has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. In the study conducted by Annamalai University,
Administration of naringenin at a dose of (50mg/kg) significantly reversed the activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes to their near-normal levels when compared to Cd-treated rats. In addition, naringenin significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and restored the levels of antioxidant defense in the liver(54).

3. Soy
In the study to evaluate the effects of soy supplementation on insulin resistance, fatty liver and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in non-diabetic patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), found that Soy supplementation decreased ALT levels and thus may improve liver inflammation in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients; it also reduced hepatic steatosis in a subgroup of patients but did not change insulin resistance. It should be considered in the nutritional care of HCV patients(55).

4. Grape
In the study to examine the effect of the grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on developing hepatic fibrosis that was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in mice, indicated that combined oral administration of GSPE at 100 mg/kg suppressed the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA, with decreased collagen accumulation as demonstrated by histomorphological evaluation and quantitative RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory factors, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was remarkably enhanced by TAA treatment(56).
Other in the study of Resveratrol Improves Intrahepatic Endothelial Dysfunction and Reduces Hepatic Fibrosis and Portal Pressure in Cirrhotic Rats, indicated that resveratrol, a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, nuts, peanuts, etc. administration reduces portal pressure, hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrosis, and improves hepatic endothelial dysfunction in cirrhotic rats, suggesting it may be a useful dietary supplement in the treatment of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis(57).

5. Etc.
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(a) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/liverdis.htm
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23194532
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19399345
(54) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409769
(55) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22611313
(56) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22863721
(57) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23262250

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