Sunday, 1 December 2013

Bladder Stone (Vesical calculi) - The Complications and Diseases associated to

Bladder Stones (calculus) is a composed of mineral masses formed in the bladder as a result of Concentrated, stagnant urinary, dehydrated causes of crystallization. Small bladder stones in most cases, pass on their own in the flow of urine.
Complications and Diseases associated with Bladder stone
1. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis
In the study of included 9,269 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) between 2006 and 2007 and 46,345 randomly selected controls, BPS/IC was found to be significantly associated with prior urinary calculi (UC) regardless of stone location; the adjusted ORs of kidney calculus, ureter calculus, bladder calculus, and unspecified calculus when compared to controls were 1.58 (95 % CI = 1.38-1.81), 1.73 (95 % CI = 1.45-2.05), 3.80 (95 % CI = 2.18-6.62), and 1.83 (95 % CI = 1.59-2.11), respectively(15).

2. Irreducible uterine prolapse
A vesical calculus in a prolapsed cystocele is rare. There is a report of case of irreducible total uterine prolapse caused by multiple vesical calculi. Bladder stones were removed through vaginal cystolithotomy followed by vaginal hysterectomy(16).

3. Acute renal failure
There is a report of a 39-year-old man with repeated urinary tract infection and lower abdominal pain, kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) and IVU film showed a huge 450-g elliptical pelvic calculus that was surgically removed with excellent results(17).

4. Enterovesical fistula
Enterovesical fistula is a very rare complication of primary urological malignancies. A case of ileovesical fistula caused by a bladder carcinoma is presented. A 66-year-old male was referred with complaints of urinary pain. On admission, fecaluria and urinary tract infection with bladder stone were detected. Cystography revealed the passage of contrast medium into the small bowel. Under the diagnosis ofileovesical fistula due to suspected inflammatory disease, sigmoidectomy and segmental small bowel resection with partial cystectomy were performed. Histological evaluation revealed a poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma(18).

5. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder
Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is an uncommon occurrence. There is a report of a 36-year-old man with complaints of pain and progressive distension of abdomen and anuria for 2 days. His abdomen was tense, tender and distended with free fluid. Blood urea was 340 mg% and ascitic fluid urea was 337 mg%. An USG showed massive ascitis, a large vesical calculus and a left renal calculus, according to the study by University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospita(19).

6. Etc.
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