Sunday, 1 December 2013

Bladder Stone (Vesical calculi) - The Causes

Bladder Stones (calculus) is a composed of mineral masses formed in the bladder as a result of Concentrated, stagnant urinary, dehydrated causes of crystallization. Small bladder stones in most cases, pass on their own in the flow of urine.
B.1. Causes
1.  Primary neurologic deficit
In the study of Medical management of urinary calculi in a stallion with breeding dysfunction, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, showed that the stallion may have had a primary neurologic deficit affecting bladder control and function that was causing calculi to form secondarily because of delay in movement of urine through the urinary tract(4).

2. Urinary tract calculi and infections
Urinary tract calculi and infections are common causes of presentation to the emergency department. Computed tomography kidney-ureter-bladder is the initial imaging study of choice in patients presenting with symptoms of urinary tract calculi. As clinical evidence of superimposed infection can be atypical or absent, it is crucial to identify subtle imaging findings that suggest this complication(5).

3. The use of urinary catheters 
Prolonged period of using  urinary catheters can cause infection. There is strong experimental and epidemiological evidence that infection by Proteus mirabilis is the main cause of the crystalline biofilms that encrust and block Foley catheters. The ability of P. mirabilis to generate alkaline urine and to colonize all available types of indwelling catheters allows it to take up stable residence in the catheterized tract in bladder stones and cause recurrent catheter blockage(6).

4. Bladder cancer
There is a report of case of ileovesical fistula caused by a bladder carcinoma is presented. A 66-year-old male was referred with complaints of urinary pain. On admission, fecaluria and urinary tract infection with bladder stone were detected(7).

5. Schistosomiasis 
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that affects 200 million people and is directly responsible for an annual death of 20,000 patients. Three species are responsible for most of the morbidity in humans: Schistosoma hematobium in Africa, S. mansoni in Africa and South America, and S. Japonicum in the Far East. Renal involvement occurs mostly with S. hematobium infection as a consequence of fibrosis and calcification of tissue-trapped ova in the lower urinary tract, leading to obstruction, reflux, infection, and stone formation(8).

6. Prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases to affect older men. Histological disease is present in more than 60% of men beyond their sixties, and more than 40% of men in this age group have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)(9).

7. Kidney stones
As a result of small kidney stones travel down the ureters into the bladder that are not passed through urination

8. Etc.
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