Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Multiple myeloma- Diseases associated to Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma or Kahler’s disease, is a type of abnormal growth of plasma cells collected in the bone marrow where they grow and multiple to interfere with the production of normal blood cells. Paraprotein, an abnormal antibody produced by the plasma cell myeloma not only can cause kidney problem but also interference with the Roche automated total bilirubin assay by precipitate formation of that can lead to clinical confusion, according to the study by the Harvard Medical School, Boston(1). Other study indicated that the production of paraproteins caused spurious results on individual analytes including total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), or HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)(b). There is also a report of a 50 years old
chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis in a patient with hypercalcemia related to Multiple Myeloma (MM)(c).
B. Diseases associated to Multiple myeloma
1. Bone diseases
Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by the frequent development of osteolytic bone lesions. According to the study by the University of Pittsburgh, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Veterans Administration Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Research and Development, the multiple myeloma-induced bone destruction is a result of the increased activity of osteoclasts that occurs adjacent to multiple myeloma cells. This activity is accompanied by suppressed osteoblast differentiation and activity, resulting in severely impaired bone formation and development of devastating osteolytic lesions(22).
2. Bilateral ovarian involvement
Extramedullary spread of multiple myeloma is extremely rare. There is a report of a case of bilateral ovarian involvement in plasma cell myeloma of a 48-year-old Persian woman who experienced constitutional symptoms, bone pain and flashing for one year. Her condition showed multiple myeloma with lytic lesions of the skull, plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow and positive light chain lambda type in serum(23).
3. Gaucher’s disease
There is a report of a case of the evolution of a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma in a patient with Gaucher’s disease of a 64-year-old woman who, 12 years after receiving a diagnosis of Gaucher’s disease with concurrent monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, developed worsening thrombocytopenia and bone pain(24).
4. Acetabular osteolysis
There is a report of a case of 71 year old man was operated in December 2005 with a total uncemented hip arthroplasty. Immediate evolution was favourable but at 4 months postoperatively he came with the complaints of left back pain irradiating in the left thigh. X-rays revealed the presence of a lytic lesion around the acetabulum with secondary dispalcement of the acetabular cup. Further investigations ruled out infection and confirmed the presence of multiple myelom(25).
5. Paget Disease (PD)
Although the Coexistence of Paget Disease (PD) and symptomatic Multiple Myeloma (MM) has rarely been described, there is a report of a 73 years old man with a diagnosis of Paget Disease (PD) and symptomatic Multiple Myeloma (MM). PD mimics many of the features of bone destructive process in MM, making differential diagnosis more complicated. In addition, the presence of serious muscolo-skeletal and metabolic complications in both diseases makes management of patients difficult, worsening the prognosis(26).
6. Multiple myeloma associated precursor diseases
Multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia share common biological and clinical features including the presence of defined precursor conditions (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis respectively), according to the study by the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda(27).
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