Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Multiple myeloma- The Complications

Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma or Kahler’s disease, is a type of abnormal growth of plasma cells collected in the bone marrow where they grow and multiple to interfere with the production of normal blood cells. Paraprotein, an abnormal antibody produced by the plasma cell myeloma not only can cause kidney problem but also interference with the Roche automated total bilirubin assay by precipitate formation of that can lead to clinical confusion, according to the study by the Harvard Medical School, Boston(1). Other study indicated that the production of paraproteins caused spurious results on individual analytes including total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), or HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)(b). There is also a report of a 50 years old
chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis in a patient with hypercalcemia related to Multiple Myeloma (MM)(c).
A. Complications
1. Deteriorated quality of life
patients with MM reported a mean decrease (e.g., worsening) between baseline and 1-yr follow-up scores for: quality of life (mean, 68 vs. 55, respectively, P < 0.001; 74% of patients had a deteriorated score)(17).
2. Immue dysfucntion
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a key regulator for immunomodulatory function, have decreased osteogenic potential in MM patients opf that can lead to impaied immunity. According to the study by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, T cells from normal donors possessed the ability to promote osteoblastic differentiation of ND-MSCs, but this ability of T cells both directly from MM patients and co-cultured with MM-MSCs was impaired which in turn lose the ability to stimulate osteogenesis of MSCs(18).
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) also known as brittle bone disease, is a congenital bone disorder that causes extremely fragile bones.There is a report of a case of osteogenesis imperfecta with multiple fractures already from childhood, myelomatosis was diagnosed at the age of 52 years as a result of a serum M-component (IgG, lambda), Bence Jones proteinuria, myeloma cells in the bone marrow, and osteolytic skeletal lesions of that can lead to erosion of bone mass and fractures. She died 10 months later. A partial postmortem examination of a larger bone lesion confirmed the diagnosis.(19).
4. Renal insufficiency
Renal insufficiency is an independent risk factor in MM. An impaired renal function in light chain associated disorders may be caused by myeloma cast nephropathy (MCN) but also by AL-amyloidosis (AL-A) and monoclonal immundeposition disease (MIDD), according to the study by Heinrich Braun Klinikum Zwickau(20).
5. Anemia
Anemia is a common complication in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and occurs in more than two thirds of all patients as MM can inetrfere with the production of normal blood cells. According to the study by Department of Medicine I, Wilhelminenspital, the most frequent underlying pathophysiological mechanism is anemia of chronic disease (ACD), relative erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency (due partly to renal impairment) and myelosuppressive effects of chemotherapy, but many other factors may account for or contribute to anemia in myeloma(21).
6. Pseudomonas endocartiditis
There is a report of a case of a is reported a rare case in a 73-year-old man with multiple myeloma who developed endocarditis due to pseudomonas(21a).
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