Monday, 2 December 2013

Kidney stones (Renal calculus) Prevention - The do's and do not list

 Kidney stones is a composed of mineral salts formed in the kidneys. Men account for the 80% of those with kidney stones and are at risk of the formings between 30 and 40 years of age. About 75% of kidney stones are calcium stones.

The do's and do not list
1. Fluid intake, protein and sodium restriction, and thiazide will be effective in ICSFs and IPSFs by decreasing urine calcium concentration and CaOx and CaP SS and may also decrease plaque formation by increased PT calcium reabsorption. Citrate may be detrimental for IPSFs if urine pH rises greatly, increasing CaP SS. Future trials should examine the question of appropriate treatment for IPSFs(13).

2.  Moderate exercise
Moderate exercise to reduce the loss of fluid. If you involve in the extreme exercise, please remember to enough fluid to avoid dehydration.

3. Prevent vitamin overdose as they can cause the forming of kidney stones.

4. If you live in far North with water hardness, use water filter

5. If you are over weight or obese, lose weight

6. Reduced consumption of grapefruit juice cola drinks.
Study showed that grapefruit juice and cola drinks significantly (p=0.021) increased urinary excretion of citrate (25.8+/-9.3 vs 18.7+/-6.2 mg/h), calcium (6.7+/-4.3 vs 3.3+/-2.3 mg/h, p=0.015) and magnesium (2.9+/-1.5 vs 1.0+/-0.7 mg/h, p=0.003) and in the prevention of calcium renal stones a reduced sugar content is desirable to avoid the increase of urinary calcium due to the effect of sugar supplementation(14).

7. Drink more juices (organic)
Researchers at the University of Bonn, in the study of influence of grapefruit-, orange- and apple-juice consumption on urinary variables and risk of crystallization, indicated that due to an increased pH value and an increased citric acid excretion after consumption of each juice, the RSCaOx decreased statistically significantly (P<0.05) for grapefruit juice, but not significantly for orange and apple juice. The BONN risk index yielded a distinct decrease in the crystallization risk. We showed that both grapefruit juice and apple juice reduce the risk of CaOx stone formation at a magnitude comparable with the effects obtained from orange juice(15).

7. Increased intake of fruits with high in magnesium and potassium
Grapefruit juice significantly (p=0.021) increased urinary excretion of citrate (25.8+/-9.3 vs 18.7+/-6.2 mg/h), calcium (6.7+/-4.3 vs 3.3+/-2.3 mg/h, p=0.015) and magnesium (2.9+/-1.5 vs 1.0+/-0.7 mg/h, p=0.003). Citrus fruit juices could represent a natural alternative to potassium citrate in the management of nephrolithiasis(16).

8. Reduce intake of foods containing high amount of oxalate such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, wheat bran, etc.

9. Others
According to the study of Dietary Factors and Risk of Kidney Stone: A Case-Control Study in Southern China, researchers at the Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, indicated that positive associations of kidney stones include consumption of grains (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 4.02) and bean products (OR = 3.50; 95% CI = 1.61, 7.59) in women. The variable "fluid drinking" showed a significant protective effect against kidney stones in men (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.88). Consuming leafy vegetables more than 3 times per day was positively associated with stones in both men and women (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.91 and OR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.48, 10.04, respectively)(17).

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