Monday, 2 December 2013

Kidney stones (Renal calculus) - The Diagnosis

Kidney stones is a composed of mineral salts formed in the kidneys. Men account for the 80% of those with kidney stones and are at risk of the formings between 30 and 40 years of age. About 75% of kidney stones are calcium stones.
If you are experience tenderness over the back and groin or pain in the genital area without an obvious cause, it can be renal colic. After a complete physical examination and recorded family history, the most common test which your doctor order is CT scan.
1. CT scan and Ultrasound
The aim of CT scan is to detect the stones or obstruction within the urinary tract.In pregnant women, CT scan can be replaced by ultrasound to reduce the risk of radiation. Helical (also called spiral) computed tomography (CT) is considered as the best to locate and reveal the degree to which the stone is blocking the urinary tract. 

2. Urinalysis 
Urinalysis is important to detect blood or pus in the urine and determine whether or not symptoms are present.
According to the study by University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Current diagnostic evaluation of recurrent Ca oxalate nephrolithiasis should be conducted while the patients follow their usual diets and includes the following:
1. Analysis of stone composition by polarization microscopy.
2. Measurement of serum Ca, phosphate, uric acid, 1,25(OH)2D3, and creatinine.
3. Twenty-four-hour urine collection for an analysis of volume, pH, and excretion of Ca, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, citrate, sodium, oxalate, and creatinine(12).

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