Monday, 2 December 2013

Hemorrhaging: Breakthrough bleeding - Treatments and Managements

Hemorrhaging is also known as bleeding or abnormal bleeding as a result of blood loss due to internal.external leaking from blood vessels or through the skin.

H. Breakthrough bleeding 
Breakthrough bleeding is defined as a condition of an abnormal flow of blood from the uterus that occurs between menstrual periods especially due to irregular sloughing of the endometrium in women on contraceptive hormones(1).
H.3. Treatments and Managements
1. Ongoing study
In the study of to evaluate doxycycline, a common antibiotic used to treat infections and acne, as a possible treatment in preventing or stopping unexpected menstrual bleeding in women, tf the study shows the drug is successful in stopping "breakthrough bleeding," more women may turn to new continuous contraception options – options that allow women to effectively stop menstrual bleeding, said study investigator Bliss Kaneshiro, M.D.,instructor in obstetrics and gynecology, OHSU School of Medicine(7).
Treatment and Management depening to the unlined causes, include
2.  Excessive thick uterine lining (edometrium) 
First, certain tests must be taken to rule out the cause of endometrial cancer(8). The excessive thicken endometrium may be as a result of estrogenic stimulation, wrong use of oral contraceptives, medication such tamoxifen, obese cause of excess estrogen due to fat, etc.

3. Oral contraceptives(9)
If the breakthrough breeding is a result of the use of oral contraceptive, some researchers suggested
a. Missed pills, late pills, irregular taking. Probably the commonest cause of breakthrough bleeding
b. Breakthrough bleeding is more common in the first six months and will often settle.
c. Infectous diseases, especially chlamydia which not infrequently presents with a history of abnormal bleeding.
d. Drugs, especially enzyme inducers which increase the metabolic transformation
of the hormones as they pass through the liver thereby decreasing contraceptive blood levels.
e. Gastrointestinal upsets are well recognised as a cause of breakthrough bleeding due to impairment of absorption.
g. Some foods are enzyme inducers
h. The formulation may need changing but think of this last rather than first. Breakthrough bleeding is more common with the low oestrogen pills but may settle if given time. A triphasic formulation will often give good cycle control. Try changing the type of progestogen.

4. Amenorrhea
If breakthrough is a result of medication-induced Amenorrhea, then taking off medication,  normal menstruation resumes in the cycle after they are discontinued.

5.  Hormonal fluctuations
In this practice guideline, the management guidelines are limited to the treatment of bleeding from the endometrium. In most cases bleeding caused by hormonal fluctuations is self-limiting. However, symptomatic treatment with progestogens or sub-50 oral contraceptives is possible. NSAIDs taken during the first three days of menstruation are the second-choice treatment in women with excessive bleeding. Tranexamic acid or a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD are other possibilities. (10) 

5. Progestin treatment
Clinicians routinely prescribe progestins along with estrogens during menopausal hormone therapy (HT) to block estrogen-dependent endometrial proliferation. Breakthrough bleeding (BTB) can negate the utility of this treatment. Because progestin antagonists also inhibit estrogen-dependent endometrial proliferation in women and macaques, we used a menopausal macaque model to determine whether a potent progestin antagonist (ZK 230 211, Schering AG; ZK) combined with estrogen would provide a novel mode of HT(11)
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