Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Enteritis - Types of Entertitis

Acute Enteritis, in most cases is defined as a condition of inflammation of the small intestine as a result of eating and drinking contaminated water and foods infected by virus and bacteria. But according to the study by the University Hospital Aintree, chronic radiation enteritis is an increasing problem, as more patients receive radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy and as the long-term survival of these patients improves(a). Other study indicated that acute radiation enteritis is almost inevitable in the curative treatment of malignant tumors of the abdomen and pelvic area. It is frequently a self-limiting disorder of intestinal function associated with reversible mucosal changes of the intestine(b). The prevalence of the disease although is decreasing, it still affects millions (approx 1 in 83 or 1.20% or 3.3 million people in USA ) of people in the U.S alone, according to the statistic. Chronic enteritis is a condition of inflammation caused by other health conditions, such as Crohn's or celiac disease.

Types of Entertitis
1. Campylobacter enteritis (Campylobacter jejuni)
Campylobacter enteritis is the commonest form of infective diarrhoea in most developed countries of the world. According to the statistic from Wales laboratory, the an annual incidence of about 85/100,000, but the true rate is probably nearer 1100/100,000. Most infections are sporadic and believed to be foodborne; large outbreaks are infrequent and mostly as a result of the consumption of raw milk or unchlorinated water. Raw meats and animal products, notably broiler chickens, are the main source of campylobacters in food(c). Other indicated that Cross-contamination and improper handling and cooking of foods of animal origin account for the majority of disease. Hygienic measures must be applied in order to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans(b).

2. E. coli enteritis (E. coli)
In an age cross sectional cohort analysis of 340 0-47 month old children and newborn cohort analysis of 144 newborns to determine the diarrheogenic Escherichia coli incidence in Santa Julia, a low socioeconomic community in Santiago, Chile, between December 1986 and February 1990, showed thatthe age cross sectional cohort had 1178 episodes of diarrhea and the newborn cohort had 674 episodes. No difference in the isolation rate of enteroaggregative E. coli existed between cases and controls. Since most households in Santa Julia have access to potable water (68%) and an indoor toilet (64%), food contamination were likely the vehicles of E. coli transmission because more than 50% of households do not have a refrigerator(e). Other in the review of the outbreak of E. coli O142 K86 H34, the enteritis of adults and children are due to enteroinvasive (EIEC) and enterotoxigenic (ETEC) strains, suggested that routine search for EPEC is suggested in cases of infantile enteritis in hospitals and other institutions(f).

3. Clostridium perfringens enteritis
Clostridium perfringens is an important anaerobic pathogen causing foodborne and non-foodborne gastrointestinal diseases in humans and animals. This pathogen is also the more common Clostridium species associated with bacteraemia. We report on a fatal case of C. perfringens infection in an adult with type 2 diabetes(g).

4. Staphylococcal enteritis (Food poisioning)
The disease is as reslt of eating or drinking substances contaminated with staph enterotoxin. The enterotoxins are fast acting, sometimes causing illness within one to six hours. Patients typically experience nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea(h).

5. Radiation enteritis
Radiation therapy may damage the lining of the intestines (bowels) and cause inflammation.
The clinicopathologic features of radiation enteritis are reviewed in 44 children receiving whole abdominal radiation therapy between 1961-1972 at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. Five of 14 long-term survivors (36%) developed severe delayed radiation injury with small bowel obstruction, occurring within 2 months after completion of irradiation. All had previously had acute radiation reaction during therapy, according to the study by Dr. Donaldson SS and the research team(i).

6. Salmonella enteritis
Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter spp. cause a considerable number of human illnesses each year, and the vast majority of cases are foodborne(j). Other study indicated thatthe most common disease syndromes caused by Salmonella serotypes in humans, typhoid fever and enteritis, can be modeled using Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections in mice and calves, respectively(k).

7. Shigella enteritis
Shigella species cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invasion, intracellular multiplication, spread to adjacent cells, and induction of brisk inflammatory responses in the intestinal epithelium(l). According to the study, in August 2002, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection occurred in a Spanish town of 6343 inhabitants. In total, 756 people developed acute gastroenteritis and 181 cases were shigella-confirmed. The peak incidence was during 5-6 August 2002. The estimated primary attack rate was 9.97%; the attack rate for secondary cases was 38%. The <15 years ago group was most affected (16.49%)(m).

8. Etc.
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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19897345
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3310287
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2018709
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8484918
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8237973
(f) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/377855
(g) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21628819
(h) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894073
(i) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/163677
(j) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212006
(k) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11755423
(l) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12438385
(m) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16194288

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