Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Enteritis Preventions - The Phytochemicals

Acute Enteritis, in most cases is defined as a condition of inflammation of the small intestine as a result of eating and drinking contaminated water and foods infected by virus and bacteria. But according to the study by the University Hospital Aintree, chronic radiation enteritis is an increasing problem, as more patients receive radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy and as the long-term survival of these patients improves(a). Other study indicated that acute radiation enteritis is almost inevitable in the curative treatment of malignant tumors of the abdomen and pelvic area. It is frequently a self-limiting disorder of intestinal function associated with reversible mucosal changes of the intestine(b). The prevalence of the disease although is decreasing, it still affects millions (approx 1 in 83 or 1.20% or 3.3 million people in USA ) of people in the U.S alone, according to the statistic. Chronic enteritis is a condition of inflammation caused by other health conditions, such as Crohn's or celiac disease.
Phytochemicals to prevent Enteritis
1. Genistein
Genistein, a principal soy isoflavone, has been identified as a protein kinase inhibitor that possesses immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. According to the study by the Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Genistein, at low doses, also appeared to attenuate immunohistochemical staining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine. The beneficial effects of genistein were not apparent at doses above 0.1 mg/kg. Genistein also inhibited LPS-induced nitrite production by cultured macrophages and protected against LPS-induced necrosis despite its ability to cause apoptosis. These results indicate that genistein displayed mild anti-inflammatory properties which may, in part, involve an attenuation of nitric oxide release via inducible nitric oxide synthase, and the formation of peroxynitrite(41).

2. Resveratrol and curcumin
In the study to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of the above mentioned compounds in a murine model of hyper-acute Th1-type ileitis following peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii conducted by the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, indicated that Oral treatment with Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin ameliorates acute small intestinal inflammation by down-regulating Th1-type immune responses and prevents bacterial translocation by maintaining gut barrier function. These findings provide novel and potential prophylaxis and treatment options of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases(42).

3. Beta-carotene
Beta-carotene is known as a potent free radical quencher and antioxidant. According to the study conducted by the B'nai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel, the result demonstrate the effectiveness of beta-carotene in a rat model as a prophylactic dietary measure in reducing the effects of acid-induced enteritis and raise the possibility that patients with Crohn's disease may benefit from the consumption of natural beta-carotene(43).
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