Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Enteritis Preventions - The Antioxidants

Acute Enteritis, in most cases is defined as a condition of inflammation of the small intestine as a result of eating and drinking contaminated water and foods infected by virus and bacteria. But according to the study by the University Hospital Aintree, chronic radiation enteritis is an increasing problem, as more patients receive radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy and as the long-term survival of these patients improves(a). Other study indicated that acute radiation enteritis is almost inevitable in the curative treatment of malignant tumors of the abdomen and pelvic area. It is frequently a self-limiting disorder of intestinal function associated with reversible mucosal changes of the intestine(b). The prevalence of the disease although is decreasing, it still affects millions (approx 1 in 83 or 1.20% or 3.3 million people in USA ) of people in the U.S alone, according to the statistic. Chronic enteritis is a condition of inflammation caused by other health conditions, such as Crohn's or celiac disease.
Antioxidants to prevent Enteritis
1. Melatonin
In the study to tests the hypothesis that "the intake of melatonin can minimize the morphological features of cell damage associated with radiation enteritis", conducted by the Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt, found that Administration of melatonin prior to irradiation can protect the intestine against X-rays destructive effects, i.e. radiation enteritis(44).

2. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1)
In the study to analyze the therapeutic value of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) supplementation in an experimental model of radiation-induced intestinal inflammation and explore its mechanistic effects, showed that Treatment with SOD1 decreases oxidative stress and adhesion molecule upregulation in response to abdominal irradiation. This is associated with an attenuation of the radiation-induced intestinal inflammatory response(45).

3. Vitamin A
Vitamin is a free radical scavenger. It emhances the immune system in fighting against forming of free radicals and foreign invasion. In the study to examine Serum retinol, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A concentrations, and jejunoileal morphology  in neonatal calves infected with Cryptosporidium parvum, showed that
Cryptosporidium parvum infection was associated with significant (P < or = 0.05) reduction in postadministration serum retinol, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A concentrations in calves of groups 2, 3, and 4. Cryptosporidium parvum infection caused significant (P < or = 0.05) reduction in villus height. Decreased villus height, villus blunting and fusion, and attenuation of the intestinal mucosa were associated with reduced absorption of vitamin A, as indicated by lower peak postadministration retinyl palmitate concentration in C parvum-infected calves(46).

4. Vitamin E
In the study to the effects of a nonenzymatic oxygen radical scavenger (vitamin E) and an exogenous PGE1 analog known to increase mucosal blood flow (misoprostol) on acute radiation enteritis in rats, showed that  ionizing radiation reduces in vivo intestinal fluid absorption without significant changes in histologic or morphometric appearance. Treatment with vitamin E, but not misoprostol, protects gastrointestinal mucosa against radiation-induced absorptive injury(47). Other study showed that selenium, vitamin E and selenium plus vitamin E pretreatments prior to whole abdominal irradiation on intestinal injury may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced intestinal injury(48).
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