Saturday, 21 December 2013

Women health - Urinary Tract Infection - Types and Diagnosis

Urinary Tract Infection is defined as a condition of is a bacterial infection of any part of the urinary tract. Women are at 10 times higher risk of develop the disease than men, according to the statistic and at least 50% of women will develop at least one urinary tract infection in their life time.
Types of Urinary tract infection
Depending to the symptoms and location of organs affected, UTIs can be classified into the following
1. Infection of the bladder: cystitis
2. Infection of the Kidneys: pyelonephritis
3. Infection of Ureters: infection of the tubes that take urine from each kidney to the urinary bladder
4. Infection of Urethra: infection of the tube that empties urine from the bladder or urethritis

If you are experience urinary tract infection, after recording the family history and carefully physical examination, test of urine sample may be the first that your doctor order to detect any presence of bacteria for any low risk of complications, depending to the symptoms. In order to prevent any contamination, sample of urine is taken in the midstream
1. Urinalysis
Urinalysis is also known as also known as R&M (Routine and Microscopy) performed by using urine test strips or light microscopy of urine samples to detect the cause of infection.
According to the study of`Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis`by Nicolle LE., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections treated in the outpatient setting and range in severity from minimally symptomatic cystitis to severe septic shock in a wide array of patients. Diagnosis of uncomplicated cystitis can be inferred from history and physical, and confirmed by urinalysis

2. Urine Culture
If the urinalysis is negative, but the symptoms are indicated the UTIs, your doctor may order the test of Urine Culture. A urine culture is a test to identify bacteria that cause a urinary tract infection (UTI), depending to the presence and numbers of the bacteria. no bactreia growth in 24 or 48 hours is an indication of no infection.

3. Ultrasound
Ultrasound allows your doctor to visualize the Urinary Tract and around structures and obstructions of the flow of urine that cause the infection as well as looking for any abnormal cells growth mass, including tumor and cancer.

4. Voiding Cystourethrogram
Voiding Cystourethrogram is an X rays of the bladder and urethra with the injection of dye into the urethra and passed through the bladder to check for any abnormality of the bladder and urethra.

5. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
Intravenous pyelogram is a X ray of kidney, ureters and urinary bladder with the use of iodinated contrast material injected into veins to check for any obstruction in the urinary tract.

6. 6. In case of obstruction caused by tumor and cancer, further tests may be needed
a. CT Scan (computerized tomography)
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes. CT scan can only review the existence of cancer, but can not tell it is a primary or secondary cancer.

b. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is one of many advanced technology used to visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body used effectively in providing the better details of the metastasis of cancer in the lung and surrounding areas.

7. Etc.

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