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Monday, 2 December 2013

Upper head hemorrhaging: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) - The Treatments

Hemorrhaging is also known as bleeding or abnormal bleeding as a result of blood loss due to internal.external leaking from blood vessels or through the skin.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is defined as a condition of the presence of blood  within the subarachnoid space (the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain).
Treatments 
1. Surgery
a. Clipping
In the study of the data of patients with SAH who underwent aneurysmal clipping at the Kartal Training and Research Hospital between 1999 and 200, showed that  early surgery is advantageous over late surgery in patients with SAH with lower post-operative vasospasm and mortality rates(22).

b. Coiling
In  the study of 15 patients with high-risk intracranial saccular aneurysms treated using electrolytically detachable coils introduced via an endovascular approach. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 69 years. The most frequent clinical presentation was subarachnoid hemorrhage (eight cases). Considerable thrombosis of the aneurysm (70% to 100%) was achieved in all 15 patients, and preservation of the parent artery was obtained in 14. Although temporary neurological deterioration due to the technique was recorded in one patient, no permanent neurological deficit was observed in this series and there were no deaths. It is believed that this new technology is a viable alternative in the management of patients with high-risk intracranial saccular aneurysms. It may also play an important role in the occlusion of aneurysms in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage(23).

c. Fenestration of the lamina terminalis and removal of cisternal clots
 In the study to investigate the effects of clot removal on multiple outcome variables following the clipping of ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms, showed that vasospasm affected 5 of 17 (29%) in group A and 8 of 13 (61.5%) in group B (p < 0.05). Endovascular treatment for vasospasm was required in one patient in group A (5.8% of 17, 20% of 5) and in five from group B (38.4% of 13, 62.5% of 8) (p < 0.05). Mortality was observed in one case in group A (5.8% of 17, 20% of 5) and in two cases in group B (15.3% of 13, 25% of 8) and was related to vasospasm after SAH. Ventriculoperitonal shunt (VPS) was required in one case in group A (5.8%) and in five cases in group B (38.4%). Conclusions: Fenestration of the lamina terminalis and removal of cisternal clots significantly decreased the incidence of post-SAH hydrocephalus and was associated with better outcomes(24).

2.  Other Treatments
The preference of medication with poor clinical evidence, such as magnesium sulfate, aspirin, statins, and anti-fibrinolytics was lower than 10%. The use of intravenous nimodipine and systemic glucocorticoids was as high as 31%. The availability of endovascular therapy was 69%. The indication for treatment of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms that required intervention was less than 13.8%. In patients with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms, coiling was the preferred method for exclusion, according to a a sample of members from the Colombian Association of Neurosurgery(25)

3. Etc.

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Sources
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22368972 
(23) http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/jns.1991.75.1.0008
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22890652
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22059120