Saturday, 14 December 2013

The Effects of Hormone Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) (3)

Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain with functions of regulating sleep cycles, other hormones, timing in secretion of female hormones that affect the menstrual cycle, etc. The levels of the circulating hormone vary in a daily cycle, depending to the circadian rhythm is an internal 24-hour “clock”.
21. Melatonin and Drug-mediated ototoxicity and tinnitus
In the study to evaluate the published basic science and clinical reports related to the role of melatonin in reducing the side effects of aminoglycosides and the cancer chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, in the cochlea and vestibule of the inner ear, suggested that the potential use of melatonin to combat the ototoxicity of aminoglycosides and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Additional studies at both the experimental and clinical levels should be performed to further document the actions of melatonin at the cochlear and vestibular levels to further clarify the protective mechanisms of action of this ubiquitously-acting molecule. Melatonin's low cost and minimal toxicity profile supports its use to protect the inner ear from drug-mediated damage(21).

22. Melatonin in experimental seizures and epilepsy
Although melatonin is approved only for the treatment of jet-lag syndrome and some types of insomnia, clinical data also suggest that it is effective in the adjunctive therapy of osteoporosis, cataract, sepsis, neurodegenerative diseases, hypertension, and even cancer.  In humans, melatonin may attenuate seizures, and it is most effective in the treatment of juvenile intractable epilepsy. Its additional benefits include improved physical, emotional, cognitive, and social functions. On the other hand, melatonin has been shown to induce electroencephalographic abnormalities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and increase seizure activity in neurologically disabled children. The hormone showed very low toxicity in clinical practice, according to the study by Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University, PL 20-090 Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, Poland(22).

23. Melatonin and Treatment of Insomnia in elder
In 3-week and 6-month, randomized, double-blind clinical trials in patients with primary insomnia aged ≥55 years, melatonin PR 2 mg 1-2 h before bedtime was associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in many sleep and daytime parameters, including sleep quality and latency, morning alertness and health-related quality of life. Melatonin PR 2 mg was very well tolerated in clinical trials in older patients, with a tolerability profile that was similar to that of placebo. Short- or longer-term treatment with melatonin PR 2 mg was not associated with dependence, tolerance, rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms(23).

24. Melatonin treatment in children with ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia
In the study to assess long-term melatonin treatment course, effectiveness and safety in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI), researchers at the Department of Neurology, Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands, found that long-term melatonin treatment was judged to be effective against sleep onset problems in 88% of the cases. Improvement of behaviour and mood was reported in 71% and 61% respectively. We conclude that melatonin remains an effective therapy on the long term for the treatment of CSOI in children with ADHD and has no safety concerns regarding serious adverse events or treatment related co-morbidity. Discontinuation of melatonin treatment usually leads to a relapse of sleep onset insomnia and in resuming melatonin treatment, even after several years of treatment(24).

25. Melatonin treatment  in the circadian sleep disorders: delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and non-24-hour sleep wake disorder
In the study to evaluate the effect of Melatonin treatment  in the circadian sleep disorders: delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and non-24-hour sleep wake disorder, researchers at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, U.K, showed that compared with placebo, melatonin advanced the sleep period in subjects with DSPS. Melatonin also improved a number of sleep parameters in blind subjects suffering from non-24-hour sleep wake disorder(25).

26. Melatonin and sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders
In a 12 week double masked randomised placebo controlled phase III trial to test for the efficacy of melatonin in treating sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, found that children gained little additional sleep on melatonin; though they fell asleep significantly faster, waking times became earlier. Child behaviour and family functioning outcomes did not significantly improve. Melatonin was tolerable over this three month period. Comparisons with slow release melatonin preparations or melatonin analogues are required(26)

27. Effects of melatonin on ovarian follicles
In the study to evaluate the histomorphometry and expression of Ki-67 and c-kit in ovarian follicles of pinealectomized or melatonin-treated pinealectomized rats, researchers at the São Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP), showed that melatonin exerts a role on the maintenance of a proper follicular function, and is thus important for ovulation and progesterone production(27).

28. Melatonin on angiogenesis and wound healing
In the study to investigate the effects of melatonin hormone on angiogenesis in wound healing on 100 Wistar-Albino rats, with melatonin dissolved in 0.9% NaCl administered to the study group in a dose of 0.4 mg/kg/rat per day (0.25 cc/rat per day), and 0.9% NaCl to the control group in a dose of 0.25 cc/rat per day. Incisions 5 cm in length were made on the back skin of the rats and the wounds were closed with a skin stapler found that melatonin may have a positive effect on both angiogenesis and wound healing(28).
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