B. Phytochemicals and antioxidants to prevent Proctitis
Theaflavin-3-gallate, a theaflavin derivative, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in black tea. In the comparison of TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, indicated that positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to “Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses” by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu Y(43).
Other In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, found that (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-catechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate, theaflavin-3′-gallate, and theaflavin-3-gallate showed antimicrobial activities at nanomolar levels; (ii) most compounds were more active than were medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations; (iii) the bactericidal activities of the teas could be accounted for by the levels of catechins and theaflavins as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography; (iv) freshly prepared tea infusions were more active than day-old teas; and (v) tea catechins without gallate side chains, gallic acid and the alkaloids caffeine and theobromine also present in teas, and herbal (chamomile and peppermint) teas that contain no flavonoids are all inactive, according to “Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus” by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N(44).
2. Allyl sulfides
Garlic has been used in traditional Chinese and herbal medicine over thousands of year as antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agent and in treating other conditions such as parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, low energy, etc. In many studies, researchers found that Allyl sulfides, a phytochemical in garlic has been demonstrated effectively in treating certain diseases.
According to the article of “GARLICTHE BOUNTIFUL BULB” by Carmia Borek, Ph.D. posted in Life extension magazine, the author indicated that human studies confirm immune stimulation by garlic. Subjects receiving aged garlic extract at 1800 mg a day for three weeks showed a 155.5% increase in natural killer immune cell activity that kills invaders and cancer cells. Other subjects receiving large amounts of fresh garlic of 35g a day, equivalent to 10 cloves, showed an increase of 139.9%. In six weeks, patients with AIDS receiving aged garlic extract showed an enhancement of natural killer cells from a seriously low level to a normal level.
Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc. In the valuation of novel synthetic analogues of piperine as inhibitors of multidrug efflux pump NorA of Staphylococcus aureus, showed that a newly identified class of compounds derived from a natural amide, piperine, is more potent than the parent molecule in potentiating the activity of ciprofloxacin through the inhibition of the NorA efflux pump. These molecules may prove useful in augmenting the antibacterial activities of fluoroquinolones in a clinical setting, according to “Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus” by Ashwani Kumar, Inshad Ali Khan, Surrinder Koul, Jawahir Lal Koul, Subhash Chandra Taneja, Intzar Ali, Furqan Ali, Sandeep Sharma, Zahid Mehmood Mirza, Manoj Kumar, Pyare Lal Sangwan, Pankaj Gupta, Niranjan Thota and Ghulam Nabi Qazi(45)
Other In the investigation of investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of piperine against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats, an experimental model for rheumatoid arthritis and compared it with that of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin, found that Histopathological analysis of joints also revealed that synovial hyperplasia and mononuclear infiltration observed in arthritic rats were alleviated by piperine. Thus, the present study clearly indicated that piperine possesses promising anti-inflammatory effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis by suppressing inflammation and cartilage destruction, according to “Anti-inflammatory Effect of Piperine in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats-a Biochemical Approach” by Murunikkara V, Pragasam SJ, Kodandaraman G, Sabina EP, Rasool M(46).
Sinigrin is a phytochemical glucosinolate, belongs to the family of glucosides found abundantly in Brussels sprouts, broccoli, the seeds of black mustard, etc. In the investigation of Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) derived from the glucosinolate sinigrin found in plants of the family Brassicaceae and its antimicrobial agent against a variety of organisms, including foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, found that it can be postulated that: 1) AIT is a more effective antimicrobial at low pH values and its degradation reduces this activity; 2) decomposition products in water might not participate in the antimicrobial action of AIT; and 3) AIT seems to have a multi-targeted mechanism of action, perhaps inhibiting several metabolic pathways and damaging cellular structures, according to “Enzymatic inhibition by allyl isothiocyanate and factors affecting its antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli O157:H7″ by Luciano FB, Holley RA(47).
Other In the examination of the effect of an aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts on formation of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in calf thymus DNA in vitro, found that Sinigrin, a glucosinolate abundant in Brussels sprouts, co-eluted with the most effective fraction and had DNA protective effects. In comparison with other antioxidants the patterns of effect of the extract in the five damage systems were more similar to that of sodium azide than to those of dimethylsulfoxide and vitamin C, according to “Inhibition of oxidative DNA damage in vitro by extracts of brussels sprouts” by Zhu C, Poulsen HE, Loft S(48).
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