Thursday, 5 December 2013

Neutropenia - Treatments In Herbal medicine perspective

Neutropenia is defined as a condition of  abnormally low number of neutrophils, as a  result of granulocyte disorder of that leads to Immunodeficiency with lower than normal  circulating white blood cells. Patients with neutropenia are susceptible to bacterial infections causes of neutropenic sepsis.
Neutropenia is either problems in the production of the cells by the bone marrow and destruction of the cells from somewhere else in the body, if  neutrophil count falls below 1,000 cells per microliter of blood.
Neutropenia can be classified into acute and chronic types, depending to the duration of the illness. Some researchers divided severity of the disease, depending to the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and is described as follows(a).
1. Mild neutropenia, when the ANC falls below a lower limit of 1500 per mm3 (1.5 x 109 /1), but remains higher than 1000 per mm3 (1.0 x 109 /1).
2. Moderate neutropenia, when the ANC falls between 500 per mm3 and 1000 per mm3 (0.5 x 109 /1 - 1.0 x 109 /1)
3. Severe neutropenia, when the ANC falls below 500 per mm3 (0.5 x 109 /1)
In Herbal medicine perspective
1. Glycyrrhizin
Glycyrrhizin is a ingredient found in liquorice (alt. licorice) rootIn the study to evaluate effect of glycyrrhizin on immunity function in allergic rhinitis (AR) mice, found that glycyrrhizin can improve immunity function in AR mice, suggesting a potential drug for the prevention and therapy of AR(67).

2. Bayberry bark extract, tea
Myricetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid that is found in many fruits, vegetables, teas and medicinal herbs, including Bayberry bark. In the study to evaluate the potential for myricetin to modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs, showed that treatment with myricetin up to 10 µg mL(-1) does not cause cytotoxicity in cells. Myricetin significantly decreased the secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-12p70 by LPS-stimulated DCs. The expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility class II, CD40 and CD86 on DCs was also inhibited by myricetin, and the endocytic and migratory capacity of LPS-stimulated DCs was blocked by myricentin. In addition, LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation was reduced by myricetin. Moreover, our results confirmed that myricetin attenuates the responses of LPS-stimulated activation of DCs via suppression of IκB kinase/nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways(68).

3. Rabdosia rubescens
According to the study of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, oridonin induced apoptosis of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemic (AML) cells. Intriguingly, the t(8;21) product AML1-ETO (AE) fusion protein, which plays a critical role in leukemogenesis, The ectopic expression of AE enhanced the apoptotic effect of oridonin in U937 cells. Preincubation with caspase inhibitors blocked oridonin-triggered cleavage of AE, while substitution of Ala for Asp at residues 188 in ETO moiety of the fusion abrogated AE degradation. Furthermore, oridonin prolonged lifespan of C57 mice bearing truncated AE-expressing leukemic cells without suppression of bone marrow or reduction of body weight of animals, and exerted synergic effects while combined with cytosine arabinoside. Oridonin also inhibited tumor growth in nude mice inoculated with t(8;21)-harboring Kasumi-1 cells(68a). 
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