Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis Treatment In Herbal medicine perspective

Nephritis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the nephrons in the kidneys.
Glomerulonephritis is defined as the condition of inflammation of the tiny filters in  kidneys (glomeruli), which filter blood by removing excess fluid, electrolytes and waste and pass them through urination.
 B. In herbal medicine perspective
According to the research of Herbal treatments of glomerulonephritis and chronicrenal failure: Review and recommendations by Rainer Nowack, Felipe Flores-Suarez, Rainer Birck, Wilhelm Schmitt and Urs Benck(34), some herbs below may have certain effects in treating glomerulonephritis.
1. Astragalus
In the study to evaluate the effect of APS on glomerulonephritis rats induced by cationic Bovine Serum Albumin(C-BSA) by flow cytometry using Nuclear Transcription Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) as marker, showed that the expression of NF-kappaB and the concentration of IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly decreased in the treatment group. This study clearly suggests that APS is effective in protecting against glomerulonephritis induced by C-BSA through the inhibition of NF-kappaB mediated-cytokine pathway(35).

2. Rhubarb
In the study of  the evidence of the effect of Rhubarb in immune complex GN induced in rats by injection of anti-thymocyte serum (ATS), researchers at the Department of Nephrology, Drum Tower Hospital, indicated that Rhubarb-treated anti-Thy-1 animal model should develop significantly less matrix expansion. Rhubarb also inhibited synthesis and secretion of fibronectin, an important component of mesangial extracellular matrix. Decreased IL-1 activity might be involved in the therapeutic effect of Rhubarb on mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis(36).

3. Perilla frutescens
In the study to evaluate the anti-nephritic effects of perilla in HIGA mice that spontaneously develop high levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) along with mesangial IgA deposition, researchers at the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, showed that Perilla suppressed proteinuria, proliferation of glomerular cells, serum levels of IgA, glomerular IgA and IgG depositions in HIGA mice. Cultured Peyer's patch cells and spleen cells from perilla-treated mice produced significantly less IgA than controls. Rosmarinic acid, by itself, suppressed serum IgA levels and glomerular IgA deposition in HIGA mice. Cultured spleen cells from RsA-treated mice produced less IgA than controls(37).

4. Dan Shen and Sheng Mai Ye
In the study to investigate the effects of danshen(Salvia plectranthoides Griff.) and shengmaiye (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey, Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl and Schisandra chinensis Baill) on glomerulosclerosis induced by adriamycin in SD rats, showed that Dansheng and shengmaiye may play an important role in the treatment of glomerulosclerosis in rats(38).

5. Arctium lappa
In the study of the ameliorative effects of arctiin from Arctium lappa on experimental glomerulonephritis in rats, researchers at the School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, found that the ameliorative effects of arctiin on glomerulonephritis is carried out mainly by suppression of NF-kappaB activation and nuclear translocation and the decreases in the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, while SOD is involved in the inhibitory pathway of NF-kappaB activation. Arctiin has favorable potency for the development of an inhibitory agent of NF-kappaB and further application to clinical treatment of glomerulonephritis, though clinical studies are required(39).

6. Etc.   

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(34) http://www.academicjournals.org/jpp/PDF/Pdf2011/Oct/Nowack%20et%20al.pdf 
(35) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17161813 
(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9812565 
(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12584268 
(38) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12080639
(39) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19524415

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