Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis - The Risk Factors

Nephritis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the nephrons in the kidneys.
Glomerulonephritis is defined as the condition of inflammation of the tiny filters in  kidneys (glomeruli), which filter blood by removing excess fluid, electrolytes and waste and pass them through urination.  

Risk factors
1. Age, hypertension, and presence of nephrotic range proteinuria
The risk factors for renal dysfunction were the age, hypertension, and nephrotic range proteinuria during the follow-up period. By multivariate analysis only the, hypertension, and presence of nephrotic range proteinuria during the follow-up period were the significant risk factors(14).

2. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
People with the infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at increased risk to develop glomerulonephritis(15).

3. Genetic passing through 
Primary glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits: a new entity which shares common genetic risk factors with haemolytic uraemic syndrome(16)

4. Diabetes
There is a report of an 88-year-old man with a 30-year history of type 2 diabetes and a 3-year history of chronic renal failure was admitted for evaluation of anasarca. On admission, findings of nephrotic syndrome and microscopic hematuria were observed. During the course of therapy, rapid deterioration of renal function occurred with the appearance of pneumonia. Irrespective of the therapy with hemodialysis and antibiotics, he died of respiratory failure. The autopsy showed a rare case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (crescentic glomerulonephritis) superimposed on membranous nephropathy(17)

4. Other risk factors
History of cancer, Blood or lymphatic system disorders, Exposure to hydrocarbon solvents are associated to higher risk to develop glomerulonephritis(17)
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(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16307349
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310786
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17018561
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293921