chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis in a patient with hypercalcemia related to Multiple Myeloma (MM)(c).
C. In traditional Chinese medicine perspective
A number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs(72).
1. Sophora roots
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of clonal plasma cells in bone marrow in the elderly. Matrine, a main alkaloid if Sophora roots, has been shown to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis of various cancer cells. According to the study by the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, matrine could exert antiproliferative effects on myeloma cells and induce apoptosis of myeloma cells in vitro. The induction of apoptosis appeared to proceed via the mitochondrial pathway, including down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, loss of Deltapsim, release of cyt c from mitochondria to cytosol, and activation of caspase-3(73).
2. the root and rhizomes of Rheum palmatum L.
Emodin is an active component of a traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine isolated from the root and rhizomes of Rheum palmatum L. According to the study by the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, emodin significantly induces cytotoxicity in the human myeloma cells through the elimination of myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1). Emodin inhibited interleukin-6-induced activation of Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), followed by the decreased expression of Mcl-1. Activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was triggered by emodin, but the expression of other antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, except Mcl-1, did not change in the presence of emodin(74).
3. Scutellaria radix
In the study to investigate the effects of the traditional Chinese herbal medicines Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (GZFLW), and Huang-Lian-Tang (HLT) on the proliferation and apoptosis of myeloma cells by the Yamaguchi University, indicated that HLJDT inhibited the proliferation of myeloma cell lines and the survival of primary myeloma cells, especially MPC-1- immature myeloma cells, and induced apoptosis in myeloma cell lines via a mitochondria-mediated pathway by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further experiments confirmed that Scutellaria radix was responsible for the suppressive effect of HLJDT on myeloma cell proliferation, and the baicalein in Scutellaria radix showed strong growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in comparison with baicalin or wogonin(75).
4. Cantharidin (CTD)
Cantharidin (CTD) a vesicant produced by beetles in the order Coleoptera has a long history in both folk and traditional medicine. In the study to investigate the possibility of CTD as a novel therapeutic agent for the patients with multiple myeloma, showed that CTD inhibited the cellular growth of human myeloma cell lines as well as freshly isolated myeloma cells in patients. Cultivation with CTD induced apoptosis of myeloma cells in a cell-cycle-independent manner. Treatment with CTD induced caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities, and it was completely blocked by each caspase inhibitor. We further examined the effect of CTD on the IL-6 signaling pathway in myeloma cells, and found that CTD inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 at tyrosine 705 residue as early as 1 h after treatment and down-regulated the expression of the antiapoptotic bcl-xL protein. STAT3 directly bound and activated the transcription of bcl-xL gene promoter, resulting in the induction of the expression of bcl-xL in myeloma cells(76).
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