chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis in a patient with hypercalcemia related to Multiple Myeloma (MM)(c).
B. Phytochemicals to prevent Multiple myeloma
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in turmeric, has been shown to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor closely linked to chemoresistance in multiple myeloma cells. According to the study by The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center,, curcumin inhibited the proliferation of human multiple myeloma cells regardless of their sensitivity to dexamethasone, doxorubicin, or melphalan. Curcumin also potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib by down-regulating the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB and Akt, and this correlated with the suppression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products, including cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, TRAF1, cIAP-1, XIAP, survivin, and vascular endothelial growth factor(42).
2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol extracted from green tea, is an antioxidant with chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic actions. Based on its ability to modulate growth factor-mediated cell proliferation.(43).
Resveratrol exerts its chemotherapeutic effect on human MM cells through mechanisms involving the impairment of the pro-survival XBP1 signaling and the activation of pro-apoptotic ER stress response(44).
4. Retinoic acid
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a derivative of vitamin A. ATRA inhibits the growth of human myeloma cell lines and freshly isolated myeloma cells in vitro mainly by down-regulating interleukin-6 receptor. In the study of patients with stable multiple myeloma after conventional chemotherapy received ATRA alone for 2 months, followed by a combination of ATRA and the chemotherapy regimen, showed that the bone marrow cells of responding patients were sensitive to ATRA in vitro. These results show that ATRA alone is not effective to treat multiple myeloma. There may be some beneficial effect of ATRA in combination chemotherapy in selected patients who have activated IL-6 signalingm, according to Turku University Central Hospital(45).
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