Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Gallstone Treatment In conventional medicine perspective

A gallstone formed within the gallbladder as a result of changes in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gallbladder function are critical factors in the pathogenesis of gallstones. Gallstones can cause blockage the flow of bile through the bile ducts that can lead to inflammatory causes of  acute cholecystitis. Gallstones are most common among older adults, women, overweight people, etc.
F.1. In conventional medicine perspective
1. Cholecystectomy
No treatment for people who have developed galldtones but with no system, otherwise, surgery to remove the gallbladder may be necessary. Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the symptomatic gallbladder. In the sugery, It is the most common method for treating symptomatic gallstones, other surgeries include the  laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and an older more invasive procedure, called open cholecystectomy.

2. Others
a. Some researchers suggested for the treatment of gallstones in patients with normal stonefree bile ducts, new modalities have been developed besides the classical cholecystectomy and the oral litholysis. The interventional procedures (local litholysis, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, combination of shockwave lithotripsy and local litholysis, cholecystostomy and extra- or intracorporeal lithotripsy) do not need a narcosis and can be applied even in high-risk patients. Because the gallbladder itself is not removed, the recurrence rate after all these interventions is rather high. The new operative procedures (laparoscopic cholecystectomy, mini-laparotomy cholecystectomy) are definitive solutions for stone disease, but must be performed mostly in narcosis(13).

b. Today, cholecystectomy was still the most frequent method of treatment for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis (n = 1369) with low morbidity (4.3%) and lethality (0.28%). Probably less than 20% of all cases fulfill the strict selection criteria for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). All alternative methods of treatment in which the gallbladder is preserved have an increased risk for gall stone recurrence. Only after the long-term follow-up results of ESWL are known, the recurrence rate can be assessed. In most cases, bile duct stones (n = 417) were removed by endoscopy, if necessary in combination with ESWL (n = 310, stone removal: 95%, lethality: 0.3%). However, in low risk patients with concurrent cholecystolithiasis surgery was still the method of choice (n = 107, stone removal: 96%, lethality: 0/107)(14).

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(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2028140
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2721300
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21756271  

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