In the examination of the data fom January 2004 to June 2005 of 796 consecutive patients referred for total colonoscopy to 17 physicians included age, gender, presence and localization of diverticula. This population was compared with a cohort of 133 consecutive patients who were admitted for colonic diverticular bleeding, showed that the prevalence of colonic diverticula increased from less than 10% in adults under 40 to about 75% in those over 75 years. Of these patients, nearly one third presented with right-sided involvement(1).
C. In traditional Chinese medicine perspective
According to the article by Dr. Shan Kong, the aim of acupuncture treatment is to improve the immune function to decrease inflammation and reduce bacterial counts, enhance blood flow to bowel that speeds healing and strengthens mucosa. The treatments also reduce transit time (amount of time stool remains in colon), of that lead to reduction of irritation/inflammation, and strengthen bowel muscle and decreases the likelihood of forming diverticula(64).
Beside acupuncture, the below Chinese herbs may be suggested to reduce inflammation with patients of diverticular disease depending to differentiation, according to the article at Acupuncture.com(65).
Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia. The herb has been used in trditional medicine as anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and to treat flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, eczema, inflammations, etc.
a.Anti inflammatory effects
In a systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, found that curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation, according to “Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa)” by Chainani-Wu N (66)
In the research of a literature search (PubMed) of almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years, with ll available abstracts were read and pproximately 300 full papers were reviewed, found that curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases, “Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases” by Bengmark S.(67).
c. Gastrointestinal diseases
In the explore more systematically in various diseases of curcumin’s therapeutic promise,
indicated that curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin’s anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers, according to “Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases” by Rajasekaran SA.(68)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil. It has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.
In the classification of the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFκB and TNF-α in liver cancer-induced rats found that ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α, according to “Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats” by Shafina Hanim Mohd Habib,I Suzana Makpol, Noor Aini Abdul Hamid, Srijit Das, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, and Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof (69)
Bromelain, a proteolytic enzymes found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.
a. Digestive system and Diabetes
Bromelain (BR), a cysteine protease has shown the inhibitory effects on intestinal secretion and inflammation, such function throught the induction of the antispasmodic effect. In vivo, BR preferentially inhibited motility in pathophysiologic states in a PAR-2-antagonist-sensitive manner as the result researchers suggested that bromelain could be a lead compound for the development of new drugs, able to normalize the intestinal motility in inflammation and diabetes according to the study of “Inhibitory effects of bromelain, a cysteine protease derived from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus), on intestinal motility in mice” by Borrelli F, Capasso R, Severino B, Fiorino F, Aviello G, De Rosa G, Mazzella M, Romano B, Capasso F, Fasolino I, Izzo AA., posted in PubMed(70)
b. Anti-inflammatory activity
In rat study, bromelain inhibits plasma exudation through inhibiting the generation of bradykinin at the inflammatory site via depletion of the plasma kallikrein system, according to the study of “Effect of bromelain on kaolin-induced inflammation in rats” by Kumakura S, Yamashita M, Tsurufuji S., posted in PubMed(71).
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