In the examination of the data fom January 2004 to June 2005 of 796 consecutive patients referred for total colonoscopy to 17 physicians included age, gender, presence and localization of diverticula. This population was compared with a cohort of 133 consecutive patients who were admitted for colonic diverticular bleeding, showed that the prevalence of colonic diverticula increased from less than 10% in adults under 40 to about 75% in those over 75 years. Of these patients, nearly one third presented with right-sided involvement(1).
B. Phytochemicals and Antioxidants to prevent diverticulitis
1. Decaffeinated green tea extract
According to the study of the immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea extract on rainbow trout, with a 30-day feeding trial, showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout(48).
2. Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate
Found abundantly in green tea, the Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate capacity of the tested polyphenols is due to their stabilizing effect on the cell membranes, thus contributing to cell protection in various pathologies and as adjuvant therapy in highly toxic treatment regimens(49).
Other study indicated that all dietary flavonoids studied (epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, gallic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside) show a significant antioxidant effect in a chemical model system, but only epigallocatechin gallate or gallic acid are able to interfere with the cell cycle in Caco2 cell lines(50).
Polyphenols possess beneficial features such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer and antibacterial activity. According to the study by Uniwersytet Łódzki, ul. Banacha, the ability of phytochemicals to induce apoptosis of cancer cells and bacterial cell damage may be, at least partly, due to their prooxidant properties. Phytocompounds enter the body through the digestive system where they undergo metabolic processes that often change their chemical features. The gastrointestinal microbiome interacts with phytochemicals and influences their bioavailability and absorption in the gut. Except for biochemical changes of plant polyphenols in the host, the achievement of therapeutic concentration in vivo may be the main problem in the determination of their real efficacy(51).
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