Sunday, 8 December 2013

Contraception - Vasectomy

Vasectomy is a permanent surgical procedure of male sterilization for preventing unwanted pregnancy to the female partner. Due to its simplicity, quickly recovery and only required about 30 minutes of surgery in the doctor office, after one week, the man with vasectomy can resume normal daily activities. In vasectomy, the tubes which carry the sperm semen from the testes may be cut and sealed with sutures by some surgical procedures below to prevent ejaculated semen to enter the female partner reproductive organ.

Types of vasectomy
All vasectomy are required the cleaning and shaving the scrotum,the use of local anesthesia and the cut and sealed of both vas deferens.
1. Conventional Vasectomy
An incision is made on the scrotum, the vas deferens is taken out through the incision. The tube is clamped on both sides with middle is removed. Both cuts s are sealed with sutures and are cauterized with an electric needle, then , the vas deferens is placed back into the scrotum.

2. Fascial Interposition Vasectomy
In order to provide additional protection in preventing the ejaculated sperm semen from entering the female reproductive organs, after the tube is cut, the fibrous layer of the tube is pulled over the cut end and sewed then sutured and cauterized with an electric needle, before placing it back into the scrotum.

3. Open and Closed-ended Vasectomy
As it said the tube end connected to the test is left open, while the other end lead to the prostate is sutured and and cauterized with an electric needle.

4. No-Scalpel Vasectomy
Unlike convention vasectomy, after holding the vas deferens with a small ring-like clamp from the skin, the tube is pulled out through small puncture made on the scrotum with a sharp hemostat, the tube is cut and the ends are sutured and and cauterized with an electric needle.

5. Vasclip Implantation
Vasclip does not make any cut to the vas deferens, but use only a rice-sized plastic clip called vasclip to make a lock to the vas deferens. The method is less effective compared with others.

6. Etc.

Risks and side effects
1. Increased risks of prostate cancer?
a. In a study of Vasectomy and Risk of Prostate Cancer by Janet L. Stanford, Kristine G. Wicklund, Barbara McKnight, Janet R. Daling and Michael K. Brawer, researchers found that no support for the hypothesis that vasectomy is associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
b. A large retrospective cohort study by Sidney et al. found no evidence that vasectomy was associated with prostate cancer.
c. In another retrospective cohort study by Giovannucci et al. found that vasectomy was linked to a 60% increase in risk of prostate cancer.

2. Surgical and anesthesia risks
including bleeding, Infection and inflammation

3. Heart diseases
In a study of Long-term effect of vasectomy on coronary heart disease. E B Perrin, J S Woods, T Namekata, J Yagi, R A Bruce, and V Hofer, researchers found that increased relative risks for CHD were found to be associated with family history of CHD, high blood pressure and smoking in this population. the relative risk of CHD associated with vasectomy was not increased in general.

4. Post-vasectomy pain syndrome
Most men who undergo vasectomy have not found any health risk, but a small group of men, the vasectomy can cause the development of chronic testicular or epididymal pain after the procedure due to infection and inflammation, leading post-vasectomy syndrome.

5. Antisperm antibodies
Caused by immune response to the increased size of the membranes to absorb and store more fluid after vasectomy.

6. Vasectomy reversal
Vasectomy reversal may be possible but is costly. Most of the times, it does not restore the sperm count and/or motility to the levels of pre-vasectomy.

7. Etc.
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