Sunday, 1 December 2013

Angina pectoris - The Diet

Angina pectoris, also known as Angina, a symptoms of  Ischemic heart disease, is defined as a condition of chest pain caused by poor blood flow through the blood vessels due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries resulting of lack of blood that lead to lack of oxygen supply and waste removal. 
Diet to prevent angina
The aims of the diet is to reduce the unhealthy diet and coronary artery disease risk factors causes of Angina pectoris, the symptom of Ischemic heart disease
1. Avocados are a commercially valuable fruit and are cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world, it is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
a. Cholesterol
In the determination of the atherogenicity of avocado oil relative to saturated (coconut oil), monounsaturated (olive oil) and polyunsaturated (corn oil) fats found that Coconut oil was the most atherogenic fat. Corn oil was only slightly less atherogenic than either olive or avocado oils. Percentage of serum HDL cholesterol was highest in the rabbits fed the two monounsaturated fats, according to "Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis 24: avocado oil" by Kritchevsky D, Tepper SA, Wright S, Czarnecki SK, Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ.(21)

b. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat Diabetes. Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(22)

c. Heart diseases
c.1.The chemical compound Beta-Sitosterol is found effectively in reducing the bad cholesterol and leaving the good cholesterol untouched by inhibiting the amount our body can absorb, thus reducing the risk of plague building up in the arterial walls, leading to heart diseases, according to the study of "The Effect of Beta Sitosterol on the Serum Lipids of Young Men with Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease" by JOHN W. FARQUHAR M.D.; RALPH E. SMITH M.D.; MARY E. DEMPSEY M.S., posted in Circulation(23)

c.2. It also reduce the risk of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, according to the study of "Effect of vitamin D and β-sitosterol on immune function of macrophages" by Alappat L, Valerio M, Awad AB.(24)

2. Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae. They are anadromous, born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then travel thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within to five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die.
a. Triacylglycerols
In the investigation of Intake of fish and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids is associated with a reduced concentration of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG) found that intake of cod or salmon when compared with the control group. In conclusion, both lean and fatty fish may lower TAG, possibly by reducing the 18:1n-9/18:0 ratio related to allosteric inhibition of SCD1 activity, rather than by influencing the synthesis of enzyme protein, according to "Daily Intake of Cod or Salmon for 2 Weeks Decreases the 18:1n-9/18:0 Ratio and Serum Triacylglycerols in Healthy Subjects" by Telle-Hansen VH, Larsen LN, Høstmark AT, Molin M, Dahl L, Almendingen K, Ulven SM.(25)

b. Weight loss
In the investigation of supplementation with n3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-LCPUFA) and its effect in body weight, found that At the end of the 1-month period, 16 children lost weight and 27 children gained weight. Multiple analysis demonstrated that supplementation with n3-LCPUFA decreased HOMA-IR by 15% after adjusting for puberty, treatment adherence, changes in adipokines, and weight loss. Interaction between supplementation and weight loss was significant (p = 0.007), according to "Supplementation of n3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synergistically Decreases Insulin Resistance with Weight Loss of Obese Prepubertal and Pubertal Children" by López-Alarcón M, Martínez-Coronado A, Velarde-Castro O, Rendón-Macías E, Fernández J.(26)

c. Cholesterol
In the assessment of an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks,
found that these effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels, according to "Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)" by Leaver MJ, Villeneuve LA, Obach A, Jensen L, Bron JE, Tocher DR, Taggart JB.(27)

d. Coronary heart disease
In determination of Omega-3-fatty acids play a protective role in the prevention of CHD,
found that The treatment with salmon oil led to a decrease of triglycerides in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and to an increase of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia. Following the increase of malondialdehyde as measure of the lipid peroxidation a substitution of antioxidants, like vitamin E and vitamin C, seems to be useful. Further investigations are necessary before wide use of fish-oil capsules, not least to avoid side-effects, according to "[Changes in parameters of lipid metabolism and anti-oxidative potentials in elderly hyperlipoproteinemic patients treated with omega-3 fatty acids].[Article in German]" by Reuter W, Vorberg B, Sauer I, Krumpolt C.(28)

e. Antioxidants
In the research of the antioxidant effect of vitamin E after ingestion of salmon found that that megadoses of vitamin E, far from having pro-oxidative activity, actually increase the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver, especially after ingestion of salmon oil, according to "Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil" by Flader D, Brandsch C, Hirche F, Eder K.(29)

3. Soy sauce is a seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans and filamentous fungus, along with water and salt after a period of sometime, it yields a moromi or thick mash of cereal to obtain soy sauce by pressing it to liquid form. Tamari is made by collecting the liquid which was pressed and the liquid drained drains from miso after a certain time of fermentation. 
a. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of dietary proteins and their effect in heart diseases found that a direct cholesterol lowering effect of proteins has not been shown. Despite earlier research indicating that soy protein has cardioprotective effects as compared to other proteins, these observations have not been confirmed by randomized placebo-controlled trials. However, most experts recommend the consumption of foods rich in plant proteins as alternatives to meat and dairy products rich in saturated fat and containing cholesterol, according to "Dietary proteins and atherosclerosis" by Darioli R.(30)

b.  Hypolipidemic effect
In the observation of Soy sauce (Shoyu), a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning and its effect on cholesterol level found that in a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, hyperlipidemic men (TG >150 mg/dl) were treated with 600 mg of SPS (n=15) or placebo (n=15) daily. After 4 weeks, serum TG levels in the SPS-treated group were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the baseline (0 week). In conclusion, SPS of soy sauce reduce lipid absorption, and soy sauce is a potentially promising seasoning for the treatment of hyperlipidemia through food, according to "Hypolipidemic effect of Shoyu polysaccharides from soy sauce in animals and humans" by Kobayashi M, Magishi N, Matsushita H, Hashimoto T, Fujimoto M, Suzuki M, Tsuji K, Saito M, Inoue E, Yoshikawa Y, Matsuura T.(31)

4. Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongs to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose
and often in green house.
a. Cardiovascular diseases
In the review of patents and products within the context of lycopene and CVD prevention and health claims indicated that in vitro data and results from animal experiments partly showed promising preventive mechanisms of lycopene. In contrast, until now, human intervention studies mostly failed to show any CVD prevention. However, there is still an encouraging situation, giving hints for antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. These mechanisms could be the background for cardio-protective effects of tomatoes and tomato products, according to "Lycopene and heart health" by Böhm V.(32)

b. Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities
In the research of Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds and their benefit in nutrition and human health found that Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent, according to "Free Amino Acid and Phenolic Contents and Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities of Extracts of 11 Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Varieties and 13 Tomato-Based Foods" by Choi SH, Kim HR, Kim HJ, Lee IS, Kozukue N, Levin CE, Friedman M.(33).

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