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Monday, 5 May 2014

Food therapy - Celery

Celery is a species of Apium graveolens, belonging to the family Apiaceae, cultivated all around the globe as a vegetable. Celery can grow to 1/2 m tall with stalks (leaf on the top) arranging in a conical shape joined at a common base.
Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Water
7. Vitamin A
8. Vitamin B1
9. Vitamin B2
10. Vitamin B6
11. Vitamin C
12. Vitamin K
13. Folate
14. Calcium
15. Manganese
16. Magnesium
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Iron
20. Sodium
21. Etc.
Phytochemicals
1. 3-n-butyl-phthalide
2. Acetylenics,
3. Coumarins 
4. Phenolic acids
5. Limonene, coumarin,
6. Phthalides
7. Apigenin
and falcariondiol (1), (9Z) 1,9-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,11-triol (2), oplopandiol (3), bergapten (4), 5,8-dimethoxy psoralen (5), isofraxidin (6), eugenic acid (7), trans-ferulic acid (8), trans-cinnamic acid (9), p-hydroxyphenylethanol ferulate (10), caffeoylquinic acid (11), 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (12), sedanolide (13), lunularin (14), lunularic acid (15), 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenol)-propane-1,3-diol (16), D-allitol (17), beta-sitosterol (18), benzolic acid (19), succinic acid (20), according to Shenyang Pharmaceutical University(a).
 
1. Celery and atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression
Stomach cancer/gastric cancer is defined as condition of abnormal growth of the mucus-producing cells of the inside lining of the stomach. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer.
atrophic gastritis is a process of chronic inflammation of the stomach mucosa.

Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, found abundantly in celery, in a joint study from institution in Taiwan, including the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, showed effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils induced by Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori(b). Celery seed extract (CSE), in in a dose- and time-dependent manner, exhibited anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells, through Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis related proteins, such as cyclin A, CDK2, down regulated bcl-2 and up -regulated Bax pathways(c).
Celery seed oil, in benzo[a]pyrene- (BP) induced forestomach cancer in mice, the chemical constituents. 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide showed to reduce tumor incidence from 68% to 30% and 11%,  and  67% and 83% in tumor multiplicity, respectively(d). In fact, according to the State University of New York,  dietary intake of celery, substantial reductions in risk gastric cancer is associated to its phytochemical such as carotene(e).


References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils by Kuo CH1, Weng BC2, Wu CC3, Yang SF4, Wu DC5, Wang YC(PubMed)
(c) Molecular mechanisms of celery seed extract induced apoptosis via s phase cell cycle arrest in the BGC-823 human stomach cancer cell line by Gao LL1, Feng L, Yao ST, Jiao P, Qin SC, Zhang W, Zhang YB, Li FR(PubMed)
(d) Chemoprevention of benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach cancer in mice by natural phthalides from celery seed oil by Zheng GQ1, Kenney PM, Zhang J, Lam LK(PubMed)
(e) Diet in the epidemiology of gastric cancer by Graham S1, Haughey B, Marshall J, Brasure J, Zielezny M, Freudenheim J, West D, Nolan J, Wilkinson G.(PubMed)


2. Celery and liver cancer
Liver cancer is defined as a condition of abnormal cell growth in the liver. Commonly, proliferation starts at bile ducts, blood vessels or connective tissue of the liver.
According to the study at Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, dietary intake high amounts of celery was associated with reduced liver cancer risk(b). Methanolic extract of celery seeds, in Wistar rats study, showed to protect against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in dose dependent manner, through modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development(c). Perillyl alcohol(d), its essential oils(e) and chemical compound phthalides(f) found in celery seed may be potent in treating liver tumors, with Perillyl alcohol also acting as a chemopreventative agent for other cancers, such as colon, skin, and lung cancer.


References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai women's and men's health studies by Zhang W1, Xiang YB, Li HL, Yang G, Cai H, Ji BT, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO(PubMed)
(c) Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development by Sultana S1, Ahmed S, Jahangir T, Sharma S(PubMed)
(d) Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology by Belanger JT.(PubMed)
(e) Influence of certain essential oils on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and acid-soluble sulfhydryls in mouse liver by Banerjee S1, Sharma R, Kale RK, Rao AR.(PubMed)
(f) Chemoprevention of benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach cancer in mice by natural phthalides from celery seed oil by Zheng GQ1, Kenney PM, Zhang J, Lam LK.(PubMed)

3. Celery and Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder named after German physician Alois Alzheimer. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior severe enough to affect language communication, memory, lifelong hobbies or social life. Alzheimer's gets worse over time, and it is fatal.
L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP), containing in the extract from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn (Chinese celery) on cerebral ischemic, vascular dementia and amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced animal models, showed to inhibit oxidative injury, neuronal apoptosis and glial activation, regulating amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing and reducing Aβ generation(b), improved cognitive impairment such as learning and memory and reduces amyloid-beta in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, through regulating APP(soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion) processing, and reducing glial activation and oxidative stress(c) and protected neurons against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity via inhibiting tau protein hyperphosphorylation(d).

References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) L-3-n-butylphthalide reduces tau phosphorylation and improves cognitive deficits in AβPP/PS1-Alzheimer's transgenic mice by Peng Y1, Hu Y, Xu S, Li P, Li J, Lu L, Yang H, Feng N, Wang L, Wang X.(PubMed)
(c) L-3-n-butylphthalide improves cognitive impairment and reduces amyloid-beta in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease by Peng Y1, Sun J, Hon S, Nylander AN, Xia W, Feng Y, Wang X, Lemere CA(PubMed)
(d) l-3-n-Butylphthalide ameliorates beta-amyloid-induced neuronal toxicity in cultured neuronal cells by Peng Y1, Xing C, Lemere CA, Chen G, Wang L, Feng Y, Wang X.(PubMed)


4. Celery and lung cancer
Lung cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal growth of the cells in the lung's tissue. Most common form of primary lung cancers are derived from epithelial cells. In Us, Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, causing 158,683 people deaths, including 88,329 men and 70,354 women, according to 2007 statistic.
The study of dietary intake of vegetables and fruit and lung cancer risk in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, northeast China(b) and Tin Corporation (YTC) miners in Yunnan(c), showed a positive effect of intake of celery daily in reduced risk of lung cancer. According to Dr. Belanger JT. research, Perillyl alcohol is a monoterpene isolated from the essential oils of celery seeds, exhibited the effect of inducing apoptosis in tumor cells without affecting normal cells and reverting tumor cells back to a differentiated state in very cancer cells, including lung cancer, through increased mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptors,  tissue growth factor beta receptors, Bak and decreased ras protein prenylation, ubiquinone synthesis, and induce Phase I and Phase II detoxification systems(d).

References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Dietary intake of fruit and vegetable and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Harbin, northeast China by Galeone C1, Negri E, Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Bosetti C, Hu J.(PubMed)
(c) [A cohort study on the relationship between vegetable intake and risks of lung cancer in the Tin Corporation (YTC) miners in Yunnan].[Article in Chinese] by Lu Q1, Yao S, Huang C, Lan Y, Cang S, Qiao Y, Wang R.(PubMed)
(d) Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology by Belanger JT.(PubMed)

5. Celery and Conlon Cancer
Colon cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way and is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including US and Canada.
Luteolin is 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone found abundantly in celery showed in regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line, through inhibited CDK2, decreased levels of Cyclin D1 levels and promoted G2/M arrest via certain mechanisms(b)(c). In the study of a total of 336 incident cases of histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (111 colon cancer and 225 rectal cancer in Harbin city, the Harbin Medical College found that increased consumption of green vegetables, including celery, have a strong protective effect against colorectal cancer(d).
According to Dr. Belanger JT, Perillyl alcohol,a monoterpene isolated from the essential oils of  celery seeds was active in inducing apoptosis in tumor cells without affecting normal cells and can revert tumor cells back to a differentiated state, including colon cancer cells(e).

References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells by the dietary compound luteolin by Lim do Y1, Jeong Y, Tyner AL, Park JH.(PubMed)
(c) Carotenoids and colon cancer by Slattery ML1, Benson J, Curtin K, Ma KN, Schaeffer D, Potter JD.(PubMed)
(d) Diet and cancer of the colon and rectum: a case-control study in China by Hu JF1, Liu YY, Yu YK, Zhao TZ, Liu SD, Wang QQ.(PubMed)
(e) Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology by Belanger JT.(PubMed)


6. Celery and hypertension
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. High blood pressure means raising pressure in your heart.If it stays high over time it can damage the body in many ways.
In take of overall vegetable was found to have an Inverse associations to blood pressure (BP), including celery(b). Celery (Apium graveolens) seed extracts, in hypertensive rat study, showed to decreased BP and increased the HR, through its active hydrophobic constitutes(c)

References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Relations of raw and cooked vegetable consumption to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study by Chan Q1, Stamler J, Brown IJ, Daviglus ML, Van Horn L, Dyer AR, Oude Griep LM, Miura K, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Nicholson JK, Holmes E, Elliott P(PubMed)
(c) Antihypertensive effect of celery seed on rat blood pressure in chronic administration by Moghadam MH1, Imenshahidi M, Mohajeri SA.(PubMed)

7. Celery and Oxidative stress
Oxidative stress is the damage caused by imbalance between Reactive oxygen species and the abilities of the body to inhibit them.
Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals showed to be effective in preventing chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body, including celery(b).Flavonoid extracts from celery, according to the Harbin Medical University, in the rat study sreduced the  activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and increased content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)(c). According to University of Novi Sad, roots and leaves extract of celery also, exhibited its scavenging property of OH* and DPPH* radicals and reduction of LPx intensity in liposomes, through their protective (antioxidant) activity(d). Limonene, a major compound found in celery seed oil, process anti free radical activity, and may be used as natural antioxidants in food applications(e).


References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)

(b) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables by Chu YF1, Sun J, Wu X, Liu RH.(PubMed)
(c) Influence of flavonoid extracts from celery on oxidative stress induced by dichlorvos in rats.

Cao J1, Zhang X, Wang Q, Jia L, Zhang Y, Zhao X.(PubMed)

(d) Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride by Popović M1, Kaurinović B, Trivić S, Mimica-Dukić N, Bursać M.(PubMed)
(e) Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants by Kiralan M1, Bayrak A, Abdulaziz OF, Ozbucak T.(PubMed)

8. Celery and Hepatoprotective effect
Hepatoprotective effect is defined of a protection against harmful of the Liver.
In acetaminophen-fed freshwater fish (Pangasius sutchi) induced liver damage, celery (Apium graveolens) leaves, showed to reverse the severity of liver damage, hepatic lipid, glycogen, ions status and histological alterations through its rich flavonoids(b). According to the Panjab University, in testing of Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) and Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine (Syn. Astercantha auriculata Nees, Acanthaceae) used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver ailments, showed a significant hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats(c). Other, in the study of the composition of Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains, showed a positive effects in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids(d).

References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Hepatoprotective action of celery (Apium graveolens) leaves in acetaminophen-fed freshwater fish (Pangasius sutchi) by Shivashri C1, Rajarajeshwari T, Rajasekar P.(PubMed)
(c) Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats by Singh A1, Handa SS.(PubMed)
(d) Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats by Abd El-Mageed NM.(PubMed)

9. Celery and cholesterol
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place. If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL that is known as bad cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke.
The study of the composition of ethanolic extract of seeds of Apium graveolens L. and its chloroform and aqueous basic fraction in olive oil on induced hyperlipidemic rats inhibited the total cholesterol (TC) triglycerides (TG),  low density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) in does depended manner(b). Mountain celery seed essential oils (MC-E)' ether fractionate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl exhibited strong hypolipidemic and  free radical scanvenging activities, repectively, according to the Da-Yeh University(c). Other study in the genetically hypercholesterolaemic (RICO) rat model, aqueous celery extract, oral admisnistion for 8 weeks induced a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC) level(d)(e)(f).


References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Effect of chloroform and aqueous basic fraction of ethanolic extract from Apium graveolens L. in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemia in ratsm by Iyer D1, Patil UK(PubMed)
(c) Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of mountain celery (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk) seed essential oils by Cheng MC1, Lin LY, Yu TH, Peng RY.(PubMed)
(d) The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolaemic activity of aqueous celery extract, its butanol and aqueous fractions in genetically hypercholesterolaemic RICO rats by Tsi D1, Tan BK.(PubMed)
(e) Effects of celery extract and 3-N-butylphthalide on lipid levels in genetically hypercholesterolaemic (RICO) rats by Tsi D1, Tan BK.(PubMed)
(f) Effects of aqueous celery (Apium graveolens) extract on lipid parameters of rats fed a high fat diet by Tsi D1, Das NP, Tan BK.(PubMed)

10. Celery and stroke
Besides cancer and heart diseases, stroke is the third leading cause of death. Approximate 1/4 of all stroke victims die as a direct result of the stroke or it's complications.
Celery may consist a potential in improve outcome of after stroke. According to Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College , Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP), isolated from the seeds of celery, used as an anti-hypertensive herbal medicine for treating stroke patients(b) in the randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial enrolled 573 patients within 48 hours of onset of ischemic stroke in China, indicated a positive outcome at the third month after stroke through both NBP  intravenous and oral treatment(c). Other in the study of DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP), a synthetic compound based on L-3-n-Butylphthalide given to  after the onset of ischemic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, found that pre- and post-treatment significantly lowered neurological deficit scores, reduced infarct volume, and minimized pathological changes in the penumbra area(d).


References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Effects of DL-3-n-butylphthalide on vascular dementia and angiogenesis by Zhang L1, Lü L, Chan WM, Huang Y, Wai MS, Yew DT.(PubMed)

(b) Ninety-day administration of dl-3-n-butylphthalide for acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind trial and Cui LY1, Zhu YC, Gao S, Wang JM, Peng B, Ni J, Zhou LX, He J, Ma XQ.(PubMed)

(c) DL-3-n-Butylphthalide, an anti-oxidant agent, prevents neurological deficits and cerebral injury following stroke per functional analysis, magnetic resonance imaging and histological assessment by Zhang L1, Yu WH, Wang YX, Wang C, Zhao F, Qi W, Chan WM, Huang Y, Wai MS, Dong J, Yew DT.(PubMed)


11. Celery and Dementia
Dementia is defined as a condition of gradually serious loss of global cognitive ability, including memory, thinking, language, judgment, behavior, etc. According to statistic, over 24 million people living with some form of dementia worldwide.
3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP), a chemical compound extracted from Chinese celery showed an improvement in spatial learning and memory in the ischemic-rat(b). According to Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, the extract not only consisted neuroprotective effects on ischemic, vascular dementia, and amyloid-beta (Abeta)-infused animal models, but also reduced total cerebral Abeta plaque deposition and lowered Abeta levels in brain homogenates through enhanced soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion (alphaAPPs), alpha-secretase, and PKCalpha expression in Alzheimer's patients(c) and tau phosphorylation and improves cognitive deficits in AβPP/PS1-Alzheimer's transgenic mice(d).


References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)(b) Effects of DL-3-n-butylphthalide on vascular dementia and angiogenesis by Zhang L1, Lü L, Chan WM, Huang Y, Wai MS, Yew DT.(PubMed)

(b) Effects of DL-3-n-butylphthalide on vascular dementia and angiogenesis by Zhang L1, Lü L, Chan WM, Huang Y, Wai MS, Yew DT.(PubMed)
(c) L-3-n-butylphthalide improves cognitive impairment and reduces amyloid-beta in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease by Peng Y1, Sun J, Hon S, Nylander AN, Xia W, Feng Y, Wang X, Lemere CA(PubMed)
(d) L-3-n-butylphthalide reduces tau phosphorylation and improves cognitive deficits in AβPP/PS1-Alzheimer's transgenic mice by Peng Y1, Hu Y, Xu S, Li P, Li J, Lu L, Yang H, Feng N, Wang L, Wang X.(PubMed)

12. Celery and anti microbial effects
According to the Iowa State University, celery juice concentrate (CJ) showed to reduce the pH of CJ before addition to the ham had greater impact on L. monocytogenes growth on does depending manner(b). Its wide version, Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), chemical constistuents sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene showed to exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus.(c).
In the testing of the effects of Apium graveolens essential oil' antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities, researchers at the University of Monastir, found that the essential oil of A. graveolens are strongly inhibitory against Escherichia coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus(d)


References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)(b) Effects of DL-3-n-butylphthalide on vascular dementia and angiogenesis by Zhang L1, Lü L, Chan WM, Huang Y, Wai MS, Yew DT.(PubMed)
(b) The effect of pH and nitrite concentration on the antimicrobial impact of celery juice concentrate compared with conventional sodium nitrite on Listeria monocytogenes by Horsch AM1, Sebranek JG, Dickson JS, Niebuhr SE, Larson EM, Lavieri NA, Ruther BL, Wilson LA.(PubMed)
(c) Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity by Marongiu B1, Piras A, Porcedda S, Falconieri D, Maxia A, Frau MA, Gonçalves MJ, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L.(PubMed)
(d) Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract by Baananou S1, Bouftira I, Mahmoud A, Boukef K, Marongiu B, Boughattas NA(PubMed)

14. Celery and anti inflammatory activities
Flavone aglycones and others rich in flavone glycosides found Celery extract, according to the study by the The Ohio State University, Columbus, modulated inflammation by reducing TNF-α and NF-κB(b). The  extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), in mice study, found to found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity(c). Apiin, a major chemical constituents found in celery, showed to exert its anti-inflammatory activity in-vivo, probably through reduction of iNOS enzyme expression(d), the extracts from extracts from Indian celery seed  also exhibited anti inflammatory against osteoarthritis caused by microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (BCP) and pseudo-gout(e)

References
(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)(b) Effects of DL-3-n-butylphthalide on vascular dementia and angiogenesis by Zhang L1, Lü L, Chan WM, Huang Y, Wai MS, Yew DT.(PubMed)

(b) Flavone deglycosylation increases their anti-inflammatory activity and absorption by Hostetler G1, Riedl K, Cardenas H, Diosa-Toro M, Arango D, Schwartz S, Doseff AI.(PubMed)
(c) A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity by Powanda MC1, Rainsford KD.(PubMed)
(d) An extract of Apium graveolens var. dulce leaves: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties by Mencherini T1, Cau A, Bianco G, Della Loggia R, Aquino RP, Autore G.(PubMed).
(e) Combination anti-inflammatory therapy: synergism in rats of NSAIDs/corticosteroids with some herbal/animal products by Whitehouse MW1, Butters DE.(PubMed)


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