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Wednesday, 21 May 2014

Health Benefits of Phytochemical Allyl isothiocyanate

By Kyle J. Norton

Phytochemicals, the natural chemical constituent, protect the plants against diseases and form their outer's color. Phytochemicals may be next potential sources of new medicine for treatment of diseases with little or no side effects.
Allyl isothiocyanate is phytochemical containing sulfur in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in horseradish, mustard, wasabi, etc.
1. Phytochemical Allyl isothiocyanate  and Brain Cancer
Brain and spinal cord make up the nervous system. Brain and Spinal Cord tumors originating is not very common. Most primary tumors are caused by abnormal cells growth that surround and support neurons, with a small number may be caused by gene defect from exposure to radiation or toxic chemicals. Benign tumors are noncancerous, and malignant tumors are cancerous. More than 190.000 people in US are diagnosed with a brain tumor each year alone.

The benefits
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) found in various cruciferous vegetables, beside has shown the inhibition  of leukemia HL-60, bladder cancer UM-UC-3 and colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro, it also significantly decreased proliferation and viability of human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) may be another potential source of anti-human brain malignant glioma drug. Other study insisted that intake of Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) may reduce the risk of cancer but  AITC at high-dose levels also exhibit a low degree of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, but unlikely in humans exposed to dietary levels of AITC.

References
(1) Allyl isothiocyanate triggers G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway by Chen NG, Chen KT, Lu CC, Lan YH, Lai CH, Chung YT, Yang JS, Lin YC.(PubMed)
(2) Allyl isothiocyanate as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical by Zhang Y.(PubMed)

2. Phytochemical Allyl isothiocyanate  and Bladder Cancer
The bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.
Bladder cancer is most common type of cancer that effect men twice as frequently as it effects women. Usually it starts from the lining the bladder caused by several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder cells.

The benefits
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) found in Cruciferous vegetables and celecoxib effects in modulate cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) oncogenic activity has been well documented in bladder cancer and other cancers. The combination showed the effectiveness in reduced risk of bladder cancer due to their associated with depletion of prostaglandin E2, a key downstream signaling molecule of Cox-2, caspase activation and downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor tissues. In other study, the N-acetylcysteine conjugate (NAC-AITC) is found to be significant inhibition of cell growth and proliferation in human bladder cancer UM-UC-3 cells or rat bladder cancer AY-27 cells with NAC-AITC at 15 ╬╝M.

References
1. Enhanced inhibition of urinary bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by allyl isothiocyanate and celecoxib in combination by Bhattacharya A, Li Y, Shi Y, Zhang Y(PubMed)
(2) The principal urinary metabolite of allyl isothiocyanate, N-acetyl-S-(N-allylthiocarbamoyl)cysteine, inhibits the growth and muscle invasion of bladder cancer by Bhattacharya A, Li Y, Geng F, Munday R, Zhang Y.(PubMed)

3. Allyl isothiocyanate and liver cancers
Liver cancer is defined as a condition of irregular cell growth in the liver.

In SK-Hep1 human hepatoma cells, Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) showed to exhibit anti liver cancer effect through suppressing tumor cell migration and cell behaviors via MMP expression(1). The phytochemical together with its N-acetylcysteine conjugate also showed the reversal of transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in dose-dependent manner also through inhibition of MMP-2/-9 messenger RNA levels(2). Unfortunately, some researchers suggested that Organosulfur compounds, may induced histone acetylation expression and thereby favor cell differentiation(3).

References
(1) Allyl isothiocyanate influences cell adhesion, migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in SK-Hep1 cells by Hwang ES1, Kim GH.(PubMed)
(2) Allyl isothiocyanate and its N-acetylcysteine conjugate suppress metastasis via inhibition of invasion, migration, and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 activities in SK-Hep 1 human hepatoma cells by Hwang ES1, Lee HJ.(PubMed)
(3) Induction of histone acetylation in rat liver and hepatoma by organosulfur compounds including diallyl disulfide by Lea MA1, Randolph VM.(PubMed)

4. Allyl isothiocyanate and Colorectal Cancer
Bowel cancer also known as colorectal cancer, is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix. Bowl is divided in 2 parts, the first part of the bowel, the small bowl, is involved with the digestion and absorption of food. The 2nd part, the large bowel which consist the the colon and rectum, is involved in absorption of water from the small bowel contents and broken down of certain materials in the feces into substances of which some of them to be re absorbed and reused by the body. Bowel cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way.
Bowel cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including U>S and Canada.

In HT-29 colorectal cell line, phytochemical Allyl isothiocyanate, showed to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells by induced blocking cell division associated with disruption of alpha-tubulin(1). The phytochemical also found to inhibit the same cell line through suppresses aberrant crypt foci in the  the mucus layer that lines the intestinesof rats(2).
Dr. Musk SR. and Dr. Johnson IT. at the AFRC Institute of Food Research, Norwich Laboratory suggested that AITC exert its cytotoxic and cytostatic effects against the development of colorectal cancer by selectively inhibiting the growth of transformed cell clones within the gastrointestinal mucosa(3).


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References
(1) Allyl-isothiocyanate causes mitotic block, loss of cell adhesion and disrupted cytoskeletal structure in HT29 cells by Smith TK1, Lund EK, Parker ML, Clarke RG, Johnson IT.(PubMed)
(2) Allyl isothiocyanate selectively kills undifferentiated HT29 cells in vitro and suppresses aberrant crypt foci in the colonic mucosa by Smith T1, Musk SR, Johnson IT.(PubMed)
(3) Allyl isothiocyanate is selectively toxic to transformed cells of the human colorectal tumour line HT29 by Musk SR, Johnson IT.(PubMed)

5. Allyl isothiocyanate and Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth which spread to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams.

In PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts, ATIC found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables exhibited its anti prostate cancer effect  through apoptosis and reducing cell proliferative activity(1). The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine study also supported the above but insisted that ATIC inhibits prostate cancer through cell cycle arrest (G2/M)and induced apoptosis(2) and The State University of New Jersey, showed the inhibition through ERK and JNK signaling pathways(cellular processes in regulation of Proliferation, Differentiation, Survival and Apoptosis) involvement in the regulation of activator protein 1 and cell death(3)

References
(1) Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo by Srivastava SK1, Xiao D, Lew KL, Hershberger P, Kokkinakis DM, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Singh SV.(PubMed)
(2) Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by causing G2/M arrest and inducing apoptosis vy Xiao D1, Srivastava SK, Lew KL, Zeng Y, Hershberger P, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Singh SV.(PubMed)
(3) ERK and JNK signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of activator protein 1 and cell death elicited by three isothiocyanates in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells by Xu C1, Shen G, Yuan X, Kim JH, Gopalkrishnan A, Keum YS, Nair S, Kong AN.(PubMed)