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Sunday, 4 May 2014

Food Therapy - Apricot

The apricot tree is about 8–12 m tall and a trunk up to 40 cm diameter belongs to the family Rosaceae. Apricot is classified with the family of the plum and has yellow to orange, often tinged red on the side  exposed to the sun.

Nutrients

1. Energy
2. Carbohydrates
3. Dietary fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Beta-carotene
8. Vitamin C
9. Iron
10. Potassium
11. Tryptophan
12. Carotenoids
13. Etc.

Chemical constituents
Oleic acid, linoleic acid,  palmitic.acid, glycolipids, phospholipids, benzoic acid (I), isorhamnetin (II), quercetin (III), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (IV), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (V), isoquercitrin (VI), hypericin (VII) and rutin (VIII)(a) and flavonoid glycosides,  (b),

The health benefits
1. Apricot and Chronic gastritis
Chronic Gastritis is a condition of chronic inflammation of the stomach mucosa medications, NSAIDs, aspirin, ibuprofen, H. pylori, anemia, autoimmune disorders, etc.
the study of Japanese apricot (CJA) intake and Helicobacter pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) showed a preventive of Japanese apricot in  inhibiting H. pylori infection and reducing active mucosal inflammation(1). In support of the apricot inhibitory effect, the Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, in the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection study indicted that the Japanese apricot not only exhibit the suppressive effects on gastric cancer development through decreased numbers of Hp and improvement of Hp-induced chronic active gastritis on administration of CJA(2). In the study of Helicobacter pylori (HP) of 485 patients suffering from gastric diseases, 59.6% were due to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, the 1Heilongjiang Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine showed a positive effect of  decode including Prunus mume in treatment of Stomach Heat Syndrome(3).

References
(a) [Studies on the chemical constituents of flowers of Prunus mume].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang QH1, Zhang L, Shang LX, Shao CL, Wu YX.(PubMed)
(b) Flavonoid glycosides from Prunus armeniaca and the antibacterial activity of a crude extract.

Rashid F1, Ahmed R, Mahmood A, Ahmad Z, Bibi N, Kazmi SU.(PubMed)
(1) Inhibitory effects of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc.; Ume) on Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis by Enomoto S1, Yanaoka K, Utsunomiya H, Niwa T, Inada K, Deguchi H, Ueda K, Mukoubayashi C, Inoue I, Maekita T, Nakazawa K, Iguchi M, Arii K, Tamai H, Yoshimura N, Fujishiro M, Oka M, Ichinose M.(PubMed)
(2) Suppressive effects of fruit-juice concentrate of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot, Ume) on Helicobacter pylori-induced glandular stomach lesions in Mongolian gerbils by Otsuka T1, Tsukamoto T, Tanaka H, Inada K, Utsunomiya H, Mizoshita T, Kumagai T, Katsuyama T, Miki K, Tatematsu M.(PubMed)
(3) [Relation between Helicobacter pylori and pathogenesis of chronic atrophic gastritis and the research of its prevention and treatment]. by[Article in Chinese] by Zhang L1, Yang LW, Yang LJ.
(PubMed)

2. Apricot and Breast cancer
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer started in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.
MK615 is an extract mixture containing hydrophobic substances from Japanese apricot, showed to inhibited 2 breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-468 (MDA) and MCF7, through by cell cycle and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in vitro(1).

References
(a) [Studies on the chemical constituents of flowers of Prunus mume].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang QH1, Zhang L, Shang LX, Shao CL, Wu YX.(PubMed)
(b) Flavonoid glycosides from Prunus armeniaca and the antibacterial activity of a crude extract.
Rashid F1, Ahmed R, Mahmood A, Ahmad Z, Bibi N, Kazmi SU.(PubMed)
(1) New antineoplastic agent, MK615, from UME (a Variety of) Japanese apricot inhibits growth of breast cancer cells in vitro by Nakagawa A1, Sawada T, Okada T, Ohsawa T, Adachi M, Kubota K.(PubMed) 
3. Apricot and liver cancer
MK615 is produced from Japanese apricot and contains several cyclic triterpenes.It's  oleanolic and ursolic acids have shown to strongly suppress cutaneous in-transit metastasis in a patient with malignant melanoma(1). In liver cancer, MK615 showed to inhibited liver cancer cell line lines, HuH7 and Hep3B, through increased the population of cells in G2/M phase. and suppressed the expression of Aurora A(1). The Takasaki General Center Hospital study also on extract Mk615, in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, the application showed  a positive effccts in decreased alpha-fetoprotein level and both the lymph node and pulmonary metastases in size and  prolonged survival in a 60-year-old female underwent surgical resection of a 9 cm HCC in the right lobe(2).

References

(1) Antitumor effect of Japanese apricot extract (MK615) on human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism by Hattori M1, Kawakami K, Akimoto M, Takenaga K, Suzumiya J, Honma Y.(PubMed)
(1) A novel anti-cancer substance, MK615, from ume, a variety of Japanese apricot, inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing Aurora A kinase activity by Okada T1, Sawada T, Osawa T, Adachi M, Kubota K.(PubMed)
(2) Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma responds to MK615, a compound extract from the Japanese apricot "Prunus mume" by Hoshino T1, Takagi H, Naganuma A, Koitabashi E, Uehara S, Sakamoto N, Kudo T, Sato K, Kakizaki S.(PubMed)

4. Apricot and Pancreatic cancer
Cancer of pancreas or pancreatic cancer is defined as condition of a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas, as the cells have become cancerous and divided uncontrollably. Most pancreatic cancers start in the ducts (exocrine component of the pancreas) that carry pancreatic juices with cancer of an epithelium that originates in glandular tissue accounts for over 75 - 90% of all cases of exocrine cancers.
Japanese apricot extract (MK615) has contained aneffectively therapeutic value in treating human cancers through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism(1). In pancreatic cancer, MK615 extract significant inhibited 3 pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1, PK-1, and PK45H , through dual inhibition of Aurora A and B kinases(2).

References
(a) [Studies on the chemical constituents of flowers of Prunus mume].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang QH1, Zhang L, Shang LX, Shao CL, Wu YX.(PubMed)
(b) Flavonoid glycosides from Prunus armeniaca and the antibacterial activity of a crude extract.


Rashid F1, Ahmed R, Mahmood A, Ahmad Z, Bibi N, Kazmi SU.(PubMed)

(1) Antitumor effect of Japanese apricot extract (MK615) on human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism by Hattori M1, Kawakami K, Akimoto M, Takenaga K, Suzumiya J, Honma Y.(PubMed)
(2) MK615 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth by dual inhibition of Aurora A and B kinases by Okada T1, Sawada T, Osawa T, Adachi M, Kubota K.(PubMed)

5. Apricot and Colon cancer
Bowel cancer also known as colorectal cancer, is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix. Bowl is divided in 2 parts, the first part of the bowel, the small bowl, is involved with the digestion and absorption of food. The 2nd part, the large bowel which consist the the colon and rectum, is involved in absorption of water from the small bowel contents and broken down of certain materials in the feces into substances of which some of them to be re absorbed and reused by the body. Bowel cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way.
Bowel cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including U>S and Canada.

The study of anti-neoplastic effects of MK615, conducted by Dokkyo University School of Medicine, indicated a sginificant inbibited 3 colon cancer cell lines, SW480, COLO, and WiDr through its exertion of  induction of apoptosis and autophagy(1).

References
(a) [Studies on the chemical constituents of flowers of Prunus mume].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang QH1, Zhang L, Shang LX, Shao CL, Wu YX.(PubMed)
(b) Flavonoid glycosides from Prunus armeniaca and the antibacterial activity of a crude extract.Rashid F1, Ahmed R, Mahmood A, Ahmad Z, Bibi N, Kazmi SU.(PubMed)
 




(1) New anti-proliferative agent, MK615, from Japanese apricot "Prunus mume" induces striking autophagy in colon cancer cells in vitro by Mori S1, Sawada T, Okada T, Ohsawa T, Adachi M, Keiichi K.(PubMed)