Saturday, 24 May 2014

Food Therapy - Avocado's Anti inflammatory effect

Avocado is commercially valuable fruit cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world. It is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
1. Vitamin K
2. Dietary fiber
3. Vitamin B6
4. Vitamin C
5. Folate
6. Copper
7. Potassium
8. Amino acid
9. Others
a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin E
e) Carotenoid
f) Pantothenic acid
g) Calcium
h) Chromium
Chemical constituents
The fruit contains campesterol, high amounts of β-sitosterol (average 76.4 mg/100 g); fatty acids (approximately 60% monounsaturated, 20% saturated, and 20% unsaturated); high amounts of glutathione (27.7 mg/100 g); approximately 2% protein; 6–9% carbohydrates and sugars (glucose, fructose, d-mannoheptulose, a taloheptulose, and an alloheptulose); two bitter substances (1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene and 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene); carnitine; proanthocyanidins; persenones A and B(a).

The immune system is the set of cells comprised with the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.
In UV-induced damage in skin cells, the unique lipid molecules, polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFA), extracted from avocado, showed to reduce UVB-induced damage and inflammation in skin. Application of the extract  prior to their exposure to UVB enhanced a protective effect, increased cell viability, decreased the secretion of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. and PGE(2) in mediated the inflammation process, and DNA repair(1).
Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU)supplement, when applied alone exhibited pain-reducing and anti-inflammatory effects, through suppressing TNF-alpha, a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, COX-2 which  involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, iNOS gene expression which involved in immune response, and prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in articular chondrocytes and monocyte/macrophages(3). When used combination with epigallocatechin gallate, in the study by Nutramax Laboratories, Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU)supplement demonstrated a significantly anti-inflammatory activity and may offer an attractive supplement or alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of osteoarthritis(2).

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(1) Polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols derived from avocado suppress inflammatory response and provide non-sunscreen protection against UV-induced damage in skin cells by Rosenblat G1, Meretski S, Segal J, Tarshis M, Schroeder A, Zanin-Zhorov A, Lion G, Ingber A, Hochberg M.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in chondrocytes by avocado soybean unsaponifiables and epigallocatechin gallate by Heinecke LF1, Grzanna MW, Au AY, Mochal CA, Rashmir-Raven A, Frondoza CG.(PubMed)
(3) Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) suppress TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, COX-2, iNOS gene expression, and prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in articular chondrocytes and monocyte/macrophages by Au RY1, Al-Talib TK, Au AY, Phan PV, Frondoza CG.(PubMed)