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Thursday, 8 May 2014

Papaya and Cellular oxidative stress

Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belongs to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries

Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Vitamin B6
10. Vitamin C
11. Vitamin E
12. Vitamin K
13. Calcium
14. Iron
15. Magnesium
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Sodium
19. Etc.

Chemical constituents
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone, etc.(a).

Papaya and Cellular oxidative stress
In Azoxymethane (AOM) induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon and oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, papaya peel extract (PapPE) and papaya epicarp extract (PEE) showed to significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects through its potent anti-oxidant activities(1)(2)as well as in reducing the neurological health diseases associated with various oxidative stress insults(3). Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), according to Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, exhibited ROS scavenging effect on blood cells in vitro or in vivo (in thalassemic patients and experimental animals), through its related antioxidant mechanism, at least in part, to iron chelation(4).


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References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts by Waly MI, Al-Rawahi AS, Al Riyami M, Al-Kindi MA, Al-Issaei HK, Farooq SA, Al-Alawi A, Rahman MS1.(PubMed)
(2) Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity by Waly MI1, Guizani N, Ali A, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(3) Papaya epicarp extract protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by Guizani N1, Waly MI, Ali A, Al-Saidi G, Singh V, Bhatt N, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(3) The antioxidant effect of fermented papaya preparation involves iron chelation by Prus E1, Fibach E.(PubMed)