Thursday, 29 May 2014

Food Therapy - Eggplant and cancer

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena, belonging to the family Solanaceae and native to India. The plant has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. It is famous with its deeply purple and the best eggplant can be found from August through October when it is in season.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Tryptophan
14. Manganese
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Magnesium
19. Phosphorus
20. Potassium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Chemical constituents
The vegetable chemical compounds containing include sterols (i.e. typical plant sterols, androstane, pregnane and cholestane derivatives, steroidal alkaloids and sapogenins), phytosterols, triterpenes, δ-amyrin, Chlorogenic acid, Nasunin and other Polyphenolic compounds.

Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.
The study of antiproliferative activities against human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells conducted by Yeungnam University, the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine showed to inhibit both cancer cell lines but greater in colon cancer cell line(1). In human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell, delphinidin, a flavonoid pigment contained in the peel of eggplant, slightly inhibited tumor cell invasiveness probably through slight inhibition of the activity of MMPs(secretes matrix metalloproteinase)(2). According to Dr. Shimada A. in an one year (continuous 2 days for 12 months) food surveys held at 5 areas in Japan, the frequency of intake eggplant may associate to increase risk of gastric cancer and gastric cancer mortality rate(3), but may account partly for the geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality in Japan(4).

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(1) Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells by Lee KR1, Kozukue N, Han JS, Park JH, Chang EY, Baek EJ, Chang JS, Friedman M.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in vitro by Nagase H1, Sasaki K, Kito H, Haga A, Sato T.(PubMed)
(3) [Regional differences in gastric cancer mortality and eating habits of people].[Article in Japanese] by Shimada A.(PubMed)
(4) Food consumption and gastric cancer mortality in five regions of Japan by Tsubono Y1, Kobayashi M, Tsugane S.(PubMed)