Thursday, 29 May 2014

Phytochemical Isothiocyanates as Antioxidants

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
In Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), an oxidative stress disorder, treatment with Sulforaphane, a molecule within the isothiocyanate group, decreased CEC apoptosis by 55% in unstressed group and by 43% in tBHP-treated specimens, through inhibition of oxidative stress(1).
The Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto study also indicated the similar result of sulforaphane in improvement of antioxidant status in the testing of number of cancer cell lines(2). Other study suggested that isothiocyanates (ITCs), found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, may be effective as a cancer chemopreventive agent through modulation of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzyme activities(3).

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(1) Sulforaphane decreases endothelial cell apoptosis in fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy: a novel treatment by Ziaei A1, Schmedt T, Chen Y, Jurkunas UV.(PubMed)
(2) The anti-oxidant properties of isothiocyanates: a review by de Figueiredo SM1, Filho SA, Nogueira-Machado JA, Caligiorne RB.(PubMed)
(3) Structural influence of isothiocyanates on the antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by Prawan A1, Keum YS, Khor TO, Yu S, Nair S, Li W, Hu L, Kong AN.(PubMed)