Monday, 26 May 2014

Avocado and osteoarthritis

Avocado is commercially valuable fruit cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world. It is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
1. Vitamin K
2. Dietary fiber
3. Vitamin B6
4. Vitamin C
5. Folate
6. Copper
7. Potassium
8. Amino acid
9. Others
a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin E
e) Carotenoid
f) Pantothenic acid
g) Calcium
h) Chromium
Chemical constituents
The fruit contains campesterol, high amounts of β-sitosterol (average 76.4 mg/100 g); fatty acids (approximately 60% monounsaturated, 20% saturated, and 20% unsaturated); high amounts of glutathione (27.7 mg/100 g); approximately 2% protein; 6–9% carbohydrates and sugars (glucose, fructose, d-mannoheptulose, a taloheptulose, and an alloheptulose); two bitter substances (1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene and 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene); carnitine; proanthocyanidins; persenones A and B(a).
Osteoarthritis is a group of diseases involved progressive denegation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone.
Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) supplement, in the searching for randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of ASU, suggested that ASU improves the symptoms of OA, with only real long-term trial yielded a largely negative result, according to Dr. Ernst E.(1). The Frederiksberg Hospital in the study of the same, with 664 OA patients with either hip (41.4%) or knee (58.6%) suggested that the 3 months, beta-analysis data support better chances of success in patients with knee OA than in those with hip OA(2). Other study also found a significantly effective of the supplement ASU in reduced the progression of joint space loss as compared with placebo in the subgroup of patients with advanced joint space narrowing, but require confirmation in a larger placebo-controlled study in hip OA(3).

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(1) Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties by Rodríguez-Carpena JG1, Morcuende D, Andrade MJ, Kylli P, Estévez M.(PubMed)
(2) Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana) by Rodríguez-Sánchez D1, Silva-Platas C, Rojo RP, García N, Cisneros-Zevallos L, García-Rivas G, Hernández-Brenes C.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage by Wang M1, Zheng Y, Khuong T, Lovatt CJ.(PubMed)

(1) Avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) for osteoarthritis - a systematic review by Ernst E.(PubMed)
(2) Symptomatic efficacy of avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Christensen R1, Bartels EM, Astrup A, Bliddal H.(PubMed)
(3) Structural effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables on joint space loss in osteoarthritis of the hip by Lequesne M1, Maheu E, Cadet C, Dreiser RL.(PubMed)