Sunday, 25 May 2014

Avocado as Antioxidant

Avocado is commercially valuable fruit cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world. It is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
1. Vitamin K
2. Dietary fiber
3. Vitamin B6
4. Vitamin C
5. Folate
6. Copper
7. Potassium
8. Amino acid
9. Others
a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin E
e) Carotenoid
f) Pantothenic acid
g) Calcium
h) Chromium
Chemical constituents
The fruit contains campesterol, high amounts of β-sitosterol (average 76.4 mg/100 g); fatty acids (approximately 60% monounsaturated, 20% saturated, and 20% unsaturated); high amounts of glutathione (27.7 mg/100 g); approximately 2% protein; 6–9% carbohydrates and sugars (glucose, fructose, d-mannoheptulose, a taloheptulose, and an alloheptulose); two bitter substances (1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene and 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene); carnitine; proanthocyanidins; persenones A and B(a).
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
Ethyl acetate, containing 70% acetone, and 70% methanol extracts of the peel, pulp, and seed from two avocado (Persea americana Mill) exerted its antioxidant activity in vitro against Gram-positive bacteria through inhibition of oxidative stress(1). the Tecnológico de Monterrey-Campus Monterrey suggested that avocado pulp may sever as a novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix due to the presence of acetogenins(2), a class of polyketide natural products found in plants. The University of California in the study of the effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit , suggested that AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days(3).

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(1) Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties by Rodríguez-Carpena JG1, Morcuende D, Andrade MJ, Kylli P, Estévez M.(PubMed)
(2) Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana) by Rodríguez-Sánchez D1, Silva-Platas C, Rojo RP, García N, Cisneros-Zevallos L, García-Rivas G, Hernández-Brenes C.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage by Wang M1, Zheng Y, Khuong T, Lovatt CJ.(PubMed)

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