Saturday, 31 May 2014

Phytochemical Sulforaphane (Isothiocyanates) and neuroprotective effect

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

Sulforaphane, a naturally organosulfur compound found in broccoli, showed to exert its neuroprotective effects through significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity, as indicated by an increased ACh level, decreased AChE activity, and increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex(1). in a variety of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, phytochemicals, isothiocyanate sulforaphane, derived from the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin mainly present in Brassica vegetables, demonstrated its neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo studies, may be mainly ascribed to its peculiar ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway(2). In dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), the phytochemical showed the neuroprotective effect through its ability to enhance glutathione levels and its dependent enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase) and to modulate neuronal survival pathways(3).

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(1) Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice by Lee S1, Kim J1, Seo SG2, Choi BR3, Han JS3, Lee KW4, Kim J5.(PubMed)
(2) Sulforaphane as a potential protective phytochemical against neurodegenerative diseases byTarozzi A1, Angeloni C, Malaguti M, Morroni F, Hrelia S, Hrelia P.(PubMed)
(3) Neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease byMorroni F1, Tarozzi A, Sita G, Bolondi C, Zolezzi Moraga JM, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P.(PubMed)