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Wednesday, 7 May 2014

Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) (2)

Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc., effect.

The Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

1. Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Constipation
Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc.,
Constipation is a condition of bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Statistic showed that constipation most often are women, adults ages 65 and older. Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001.

The Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

The benefits
Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001. Cascara Sagrada, the herb used as laxative in herbal medicine may be a potential use to treat constipation. Other in the study of Effect of ear mushroom (Auricularia) on functional constipation, showed a positive result of Both ear mushrooms alone and ear mushrooms with additives (including Cascara Sagrada)  in significantly improved number of bowel movement, straining, sense of incomplete evacuation, stool consistency and satisfactory relief in patients with functional chronic constipation. 'Fiber 7' supplement used in oral diet has found to be effective to   allow discontinuation of laxatives in 63 of 92 nursing home residents

References
(1) Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
(2) Constipation in adults. by Mueller-Lissner SA, Wald A.(PubMed)
(3) [Effect of ear mushroom (Auricularia) on functional constipation].[Article in Korean] by Kim TI, Park SJ, Choi CH, Lee SK, Kim WH.(PubMed)

2. Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and type 2 diabetes
Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc.,
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.
The Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

The benefits
Emodin, a natural component of Cascara Sagrada, beside stimulates  AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity in skeletal muscle and liver cells, it also is found effectively in treating insulin sensitivity by regulating the glucose homeostasis, through AMPK activation, representing a novel therapeutic principle in the treatment of type 2 diabetic models. The Tsinghua University and Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica in the study of emodin also support the use of emodin in treating diabetes and metabolic syndrome


References
(1) Emodin regulates glucose utilization by activating AMP-activated protein kinase by Song P, Kim JH, Ghim J, Yoon JH, Lee A, Kwon Y, Hyun H, Moon HY, Choi HS, Berggren PO, Suh PG, Ryu SH.(PubMed)
(2) Promotion of adiponectin multimerization by emodin: a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity by Chen Z, Zhang L, Yi J, Yang Z, Zhang Z, Li Z.(PubMed)
(3) Emodin, a natural product, selectively inhibits 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and ameliorates metabolic disorder in diet-induced obese mice by Feng Y, Huang SL, Dou W, Zhang S, Chen JH, Shen Y, Shen JH, Leng Y.(PubMed)

3. Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Pancreatic cancer
Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc..
Cancer of pancreas or pancreatic cancer is defined as condition of a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas, as the cells have become cancerous and divided uncontrollably. Most pancreatic cancers start in the ducts (exocrine component of the pancreas) that carry pancreatic juices with cancer of an epithelium that originates in glandular tissue accounts for over 75 - 90% of all cases of exocrine cancers.

The Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.
The benefits
Emodin, found in Cascara Sagrada  have showed in some studies as a potential source in treating many types of cancer. In panceatic cancer, the chemical constutents exerted its anti-tumor effect on  via its dual role in the promotion of apoptosis and suppression of angiogenesisa. Other studies by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Emodin and gemcitabine conbination potentiate the inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth induced by gemcitabine both in vitro and in vivo, which might be achieved by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2.

References
(1) Antitumor activity of emodin against pancreatic cancer depends on its dual role: promotion of apoptosis and suppression of angiogenesis by SZ, Wei WT, Chen H, Chen KJ, Tong HF, Wang ZH, Ni ZL, Liu HB, Guo HC, Liu DL.(PubMed)
(2) [Emodin combined gemcitabine inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo and its mechanisms study].[Article in Chinese] by u A, Luo J, Zhang JH. (PubMed)

4. Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Anti viral effects
Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc.,
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.
The Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

The benefits
Hot glycerin extracts were prepared from some herbal plants, including Cascara Sagrada is found to be effective in exerting their anti viral activities including herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. In the combined emodin plus Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) study, showed  a weak but persistent inhibitory effect on HBV replication in vivo, which may function as a supplementary modality in the treatment of hepatitis B infection. In SARS,  Isatis indigotica root extract, five major compounds of I. indigotica root, and seven plant-derived phenolic compounds were tested, only compounds aloe emodin and hesperetin dose-dependently inhibited cleavage activity of the 3CLpro,

References
(1) Inactivation of enveloped viruses by anthraquinones extracted from plants.Sydiskis RJ, Owen DG, Lohr JL, Rosler KH, Blomster RN.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibitory effect of emodin and Astragalus polysaccharide on the replication of HBV.  by Dang SS, Jia XL, Song P, Cheng YA, Zhang X, Sun MZ, Liu EQ.(PubMed)
(3) Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of Isatis indigotica root and plant-derived phenolic compounds by Lin CW, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Lai CC, Wan L, Ho TY, Hsieh CC, Chao PD.(PubMed)


5. Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Anti bacterial effects
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.

The Benefits

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a substantial contributor to morbidity and mortality. emodin (EM), the major component found in Cascara Sagrada and many other plants conbined with ampicillin (AM) or oxacillin (OX) have a showed a positive effects against all strains resulted in a fractional inhibitory concentrations index (FICI) ranging from 0.37-0.5 and from 0.37-0.75, respectively. Other in the study of the effect of glycoside on the antibacterial activity of aloin, showed Aloe-emodin (inhibition diameter < 5.0 mm), changed the morphology of E. coli and damaged the outer cell structrue.

References
(1) Synergistic effect of emodin in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.by Lee YS, Kang OH, Choi JG, Oh YC, Keum JH, Kim SB, Jeong GS, Kim YC, Shin DW, Kwon DY.(PubMed)
(2) [Relationship between antibacterial activity of aloe and its anthaquinone compounds].

[Article in Chinese] by Tian B, Hua YJ, Ma XQ, Wang GL.(PubMed)
6. Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and breast cancer

6. Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

The benefits
Emodin and Aloe-Emodin, the 2 major conponents found in Cascara Sagrada, is found to be effective in  inhibiting  breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels. Other in the conbined study of Curcumin and emodin on tumor cell growth not only provide insight into the mechanism of synergy between curcumin and emodin in breast cancer cells, but also suggest a new and potentially useful approach for breast cancer therapy. Also in the study by the University, Hong Kong, emodin is found to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through the modulation of the expression of apoptosis-related genes.
References
(1) Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition, byHuang PH, Huang CY, Chen MC, Lee YT, Yue CH, Wang HY, Lin H.(PubMed)
(2) Synergistic effects of curcumin with emodin against the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells through upregulation of miR-34a. by Guo J, Li W, Shi H, Xie X, Li L, Tang H, Wu M, Kong Y, Yang L, Gao J, Liu P, Wei W, Xie X.(PubMed)
(3) Emodin induces cytotoxic effect in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell through modulating the expression of apoptosis-related genes by Li WY, Chan RY, Yu PH, Chan SW.(PubMed)
7. Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth which spread to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams



The benefits

Aloe-emodin, a chemical constituent found in Cascara Sagrada is found to inhibit both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells by targeting mTORC2. Other major compound of emodin, Cascara Sagrada in the study of its effective on prostate and lung cancers, showed to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, impede metastasis, and enhance chemotherapy as a novel blocker of CXCR4 expression
References
(1) Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2 by Liu K, Park C, Li S, Lee KW, Liu H, He L, Soung NK, Ahn JS, Bode AM, Dong Z, Kim BY, Dong Z.(PubMed)
(2) Emodin inhibits invasion and migration of prostate and lung cancer cells by downregulating the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 by Ok S, Kim SM, Kim C, Nam D, Shim BS, Kim SH, Ahn KS, Choi SH, Ahn KS.(PubMed)
 
8. Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Liver cancer
Liver cancer is defined as a condition of out of controlled growth of hepatocellular cells in the liver. Since the organ is a soft tissue with less nerve, most liver cancer patient are diagnosed in the later stage of the cancer. According to the statistic, liver cancer remains the fifth most common malignancy in men and the eighth in women worldwide.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common form of primary liver cancer.
The health benefits
It is believe that the Gene CXC12 with diverted cellular functions and CXCR4, a protein in the cell surface chemical reactions may involve in the process of development of liver cancer. Down regulation of CXCR4 expression in these reaction may be considered in  prevention and treatment the spread of liver cancer. Emodin, a major chemical constituent found in Cascara Sagrada exerted its anti cancer activities by inhibiting the NF-κB activation (inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis) and suppression of CXCL12-induced the spread and invasion in HCC cell lines. In HepG2 cells, in doses depending manner, emodin increased the protein level of cellular tumor antigen (P53) and decreased the protein level of NF-κB/p65 (mutation of gene causes of cancers) in HepG2 cells, a liver cancer cell line. The search team at  Wuhan University, also found that emodin not only down regulated expression of (a protein in regulating and contributing to programmed cell death or apoptosis, but also inhibited the heterodimerization of Bcl-2 with Bax (pro-apoptotic Bax protein). Through these results, emodin suppression of CXCR4 signaling pathway as well as controlling the process of a multifaceted complex cascade of events in liver progression may be another choices in treating liver cancer. The other chemical constituent, Aloe-emodin, also is found to exert its anti cancer effect on the proliferation of hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells as it inhibited
the Huh-7 cells (an inherited disorder) in dose- and time-dependent manners and  anti proliferative effect via induction of DNA damage and apoptosis.

References
(1) Emodin suppresses migration and invasion through the modulation of CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma by Manu KA, Shanmugam MK, Ong TH, Subramaniam A, Siveen KS, Perumal E, Samy RP, Bist P, Lim LH, Kumar AP, Hui KM, Sethi G.(PubMed)
(2) Emodin regulates apoptotic pathway in human liver cancer cells by Yu JQ, Bao W, Lei JC.(PubMed)
(3) Apoptosis by aloe-emodin is mediated through down-regulation of calpain-2 and ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells by Jeon W, Jeon YK, Nam MJ.(PubMed)

9. Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and bladder cancer
The bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.
Bladder cancer is most common type of cancer that effect men twice as frequently as it effects women. Usually it starts from the lining the bladder caused by several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder cells.
The health benefits
Genetic markers may play an important role in prevention and treatment of cancers. Suggestion of deregulation of gene activity occur early may be the reason of cancers subsequently. Genetic study showed that patients with bladder cancer has a low genetic marker histone H3K27 trimethylation (important regulatory factors) and high histone H3S10 phosphorylation (elevated levels on the highly condensed, transcriptionally inactive mitotic chromosomes) in bladder tissues but opposite expression in normal people, Emodin, a chemical constituent, in study found to be effective in alternation of epigenetic modifications in suppression of pH3Ser10 and increased H3K27me3. There results showed the interaction of emodin in mediated epigenetic modulation of target genes and anti-neoplastic activity in bladder cancer cell. Aloe-emodin, another chemical compound is found to be effective in  causing apoptosis of T24 cells through the activation of p53 (the protein level of cellular tumor antigen), p21(a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor), Fas/APO-1(a cell-surface protein capable of inducing apoptosis), Bax (Gene) and caspase-3(a caspase protein).

References
(1) Emodin modulates epigenetic modifications and suppresses bladder carcinoma cell growth by Cha TL, Chuang MJ, Tang SH, Wu ST, Sun KH, Chen TT, Sun GH, Chang SY, Yu CP, Ho JY, Liu SY, Huang SM, Yu DS.(PubMed)
(2) Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells through the p53 dependent apoptotic pathway by Lin JG, Chen GW, Li TM, Chouh ST, Tan TW, Chung JG.(PubMed)

10. Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is defined as a condition of abnormal cells growth of ovarian cells as that have become cancerous. It is one of most common cancer in US, according to the statistics adapted from the American Cancer Society's publication, Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, an estimated 21,880 women in the United States will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 13,850 deaths

The health benefits
Study in combined treatment of emodin and survivin-targeted shRNA (a sequence of RNA) with
sur-shRNA plasmid constructed and transfected into the ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and HO8910, showed positive effect of the shRNA specific for survivin effectively reduced the expression of survivin at the mRNA and protein levels in SKOV3 and HO8910 cells. Combination of emodin and shRNA-mediated knockdown of survivin significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed invasion in SKOV3 and HO8910 cells. Other treatment with concentration of emodin alone or combined with paclitaxel, indicated an effective of emodin induced apoptosis alone at a high concentration and increased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis at a low concentration. These results suggested the possibility of an innovative chemotherapeutic strategy in treating drug resistant ovarian tumor.

References
(1) The combined effect of survivin-targeted shRNA and emodin on the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by Xue H, Chen Y, Cai X, Zhao L, He A, Guo K, Zheng X.(PubMed)
(2) Emodin sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in vitro by Li J, Liu P, Mao H, Wanga A, Zhang X.(PubMed)

11. Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and primary glioblastoma
Bone Cancer
A bone cancer is an abnormal growth of cells within the bone that have became cancerous. Bone cancer may be classified as primary cancer originated in the bone, and secondary cancer originated from elsewhere.

The health benefits Aloe emodin have been found to effective in induced cell anti proliferation and apoptosis in some cancer cell line. In U87 human malignant glioma cells, the chemical constituent found in Cascara Sagrada,
arrested the cell cycle in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle and promoted the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U87 cells, leading to early event of mitochondria-induced apoptotic pathway. In other study of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; control) or aloe-emodin (40 microM) showed the effective of Aloe-emodin in inducing apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells by suppressed PKC(a family of protein) activity and reduced the protein content of most of the PKC isozymes. These results support the positive effect of aloe-emodin and may be considered as a potential agent in treating human malignant glioma cells.

References
(1) Enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in human U87 malignant glioma cells by aloe emodin by Ismail S, Haris K, Abdul Ghani AR, Abdullah JM, Johan MF, Mohamed Yusoff AA.(PubMed)
(2) Aloe-emodin modulates PKC isozymes, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells by Acevedo-Duncan M, Russell C, Patel S, Patel R.(PubMed)


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