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Thursday, 8 May 2014

Herbal Calendula (Calendula officinalis)

Calendula is also known as pot marigold, a annual or perennial herbaceous plants of about 12–20 species of genus Calendula, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Southern Europe. It has been used in herbal medicine as spasmolytic, spasmogenic, inflammatory effects and to treat abdominal cramps, wound healing, skin diseases, colitis, constipation, etc.

Ingredients
Beside major chemical constituents of triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarines, quinones, volatile oil,carotenoids and amino acids, the herb also contains loliolide (calendin), calendulin and n-paraffins

1. Herbal Calendula (Calendula officinalis) and skin
India and many place in the world. Essential oil of Calendula flowers has found effectively used as topical cream to protect against sun radiation damage as well as maintaining the natural pigments of skin. Others in the study of the same with cutaneous application of the essential oil, showed a most effective result as creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease oxidative stress found in malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of antioxidants (catalaseEzyme, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid) and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment. Calendula extract used in the study on the mechanical parameters of the skin by using the cutometer, showed newly formulated topical cream of Calendula officinalis extract exerted its protection of skin in significant improvements in hydration and firmness. Even with the result of the studies, some researchers suggested that many data are needed such as current concentration of use data,  ultraviolet (UV) absorption data, photosensitization data, dermal reproductive/developmental toxicity data; inhalation toxicity data, etc  before the essential oil of Herbal Calendula can be used as ingredients of cosmetic products.


References
(1) Phytochemical Constituents and PharmacologicalActivities of Calendula officinalis Linn (Asteraceae): AReview by BP Muley, SS Khadabadi and NB Banarase (Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research)
(2) Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation by Mishra A, Mishra A, Chattopadhyay P.(PubMed)
(3) Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation by Mishra AK, Mishra A, Verma A, Chattopadhyay P.(PubMed)
(3) Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and Calendula officinalis.

[No authors listed](PubMed)
(4) Calendula extract: effects on mechanical parameters of human skin by Akhtar N, Zaman SU, Khan BA, Amir MN, Ebrahimzadeh MA.(PubMed)
2. Herbal Calendula (Calendula officinalis)  and edema
Edema is a condition of accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces, causes of swelling in the feet, ankles and legs.

The benefits
Calendula officinalis flower extract has been used to effective in treating inflammatory causes of edema in a carrageenan and dextran-induced acute paw edema model by 41.9 and 42.4%  respectively in oral administration of  250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and Cox-2 and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis. Study the anti-inflammatory activity of three new terpenoids, also indicated that the new chemical constituent found in calendula protected agains  inhibition of croton oil induced ear oedema in mouse.

References
(1) Phytochemical Constituents and PharmacologicalActivities of Calendula officinalis Linn (Asteraceae): AReview by BP Muley, SS Khadabadi and NB Banarase (Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research)
(2)Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis Linn. and its possible mechanism of action by Preethi KC, Kuttan G, Kuttan R.(PubMed)(3) Improved anti-inflammatory activity of three new terpenoids derived, by systematic chemical modifications, from the abundant triterpenes of the flowery plant Calendula officinalis by Neukirch H, D'Ambrosio M, Sosa S, Altinier G, Della Loggia R, Guerriero A.(PubMed)

3. Herbal Calendula and chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome
Chronic blepharitis is a condition of chronic inflammation of the eyelid, depending to its severity.
The study of a total of 110 patients aged from 3 to 42 years old with chronic blepharitis treatment: 50 patients with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome, moist warm pads eyelid massage with blepharolotion and calendula extraction showed to improve efficacy in patients with meibomian gland hypofunction and have no effect in blepharitis with excessive meibomian gland secretion(1)

References
(1) [Efficacy of physiotherapy and hygienic procedures in treatment of adults and children with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome].[Article in Russian] by Prozornaia LP, Brzhevskiĭ VV.(PubMed)

4. Herbal Calendula and Neuroprotective effects
Neuro protective effect is defined of a protection against harmful of the brain.
In 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats, Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) showed asignificantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss, probably through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties(1). Monosodium glutamate (MSG) a popular flavour enhancer used in food industries may cause neurotoxicity if excess intake.
In neurotoxic mice induced by excess intake of MSG, the similar extract also significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, and hippocampal damage(2)

References

(1) Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats by Shivasharan BD1, Nagakannan P, Thippeswamy BS, Veerapur VP, Bansal P, Unnikrishnan MK(PubMed)
(2) Protective Effect of Calendula officinalis L. Flowers Against Monosodium Glutamate Induced Oxidative Stress and Excitotoxic Brain Damage in Rats by Shivasharan BD, Nagakannan P, Thippeswamy BS, Veerapur VP(PubMed)

5. Herbal Calendula and Atherosclerosis
Edema is a condition of accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces, causes of swelling in the feet, ankles and legs.

The study of natural products including botanicals for both therapy of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis and reduction of atherosclerosis risk, showed a positive effects of herbal Caendula in reduced risk of atherosclerosis and progression of the disease(1). Inflaminat, a composition of (calendula, elder, and violet), which possesses anti-cytokine activity, showed to cause the regression of carotid atherosclerosis(2). Other composition, including calendula, elder, and pansy showed to enhanced maximum antiinflammatory activity. Thus can be used for pathogenetic therapy of various inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis(3).

References
(1) Anti-atherosclerotic therapy based on botanicals by Orekhov AN1, Sobenin IA, Korneev NV, Kirichenko TV, Myasoedova VA, Melnichenko AA, Balcells M, Edelman ER, Bobryshev YV.(PubMed)
(2) Direct anti-atherosclerotic therapy; development of natural anti-atherosclerotic drugs preventing cellular cholesterol retention by Orekhov AN(PubMed)
(3) Use of natural products in anticytokine therapy by Gorchakova TV1, Suprun IV, Sobenin IA, Orekhov AN(PubMed)


6. Side effects
1. Calendula may cause allergic effect to certain people, symptoms include rash, itching, swelling, dizziness, trouble breathing, etc.
2. Do not use Calendula if you are pregnant or breast feeding, diabetes, alcohol dependence or liver disease with out consulting with related field specialist
3. Overdose can be Poisson. Etc.


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