Wednesday, 28 May 2014

Whole Fruit Avocado and Prostate Cancer

Avocado is commercially valuable fruit cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world. It is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
1. Vitamin K
2. Dietary fiber
3. Vitamin B6
4. Vitamin C
5. Folate
6. Copper
7. Potassium
8. Amino acid
9. Others
a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin E
e) Carotenoid
f) Pantothenic acid
g) Calcium
h) Chromium
Chemical constituents
The fruit contains campesterol, high amounts of β-sitosterol (average 76.4 mg/100 g); fatty acids (approximately 60% monounsaturated, 20% saturated, and 20% unsaturated); high amounts of glutathione (27.7 mg/100 g); approximately 2% protein; 6–9% carbohydrates and sugars (glucose, fructose, d-mannoheptulose, a taloheptulose, and an alloheptulose); two bitter substances (1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene and 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene); carnitine; proanthocyanidins; persenones A and B(a).

Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cells growth which spread to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams.

Intake of dietary MUFAs from whole fruit of avocado is associated to reduce risk of prostate cancer, the new study at the University of the West Indies suggested(1). In support of the above, the University of California indicated that the anti prostate cancer effect are not as result of a single ingredient such as related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene), lutein but the interaction of all ingredients in the whole fruit combination with other det-derived phytochemicals through cell cycle arrest and  G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein in controlling the cell cycle progression at G1 in incubation of PC-3 cells(3). The Purdue University study in the evaluation of the anti cancers effect of avocado showed  a positive effect of the whole fruit avocado in inhibition of six human tumor cell lines in culture, including human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) cells(4).

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Side effects
1. Skin product of avocado oils may contain latex which can cause skin side effect in certain people with hypersensitivity to latex, leading to symptoms of reddening of the skin, itching, hives, or eczema.
2. Liver damage
Certain types of avocado may cause liver damage as a result of collagen accumulation in the liver
3. Breastfeeding
Some types of Avocado may be unsafe during breastfeeding as it can cause problems of upset stomachs in babies.
4. Drugs
Avocado may decrease the effect of "blood thinning" or anti-inflammatory medications.
5. It may cause symptoms of gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, diarrhoea, respiratory distress, congestion, fluid accumulation due to toxic fatty acid derivative, Persin.
6. Etc. 

(a) Leung's Encyclopedia of Natural Ingredients:Chemical Composition of Avocado
(1) Associations of whole-blood fatty acids and dietary intakes with prostate cancer in Jamaica by Jackson MD1, Walker SP, Simpson-Smith CM, Lindsay CM, Smith G, McFarlane-Anderson N, Bennett FI, Coard KC, Aiken WD, Tulloch T, Paul TJ, Wan RL.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances. by Lu QY1, Arteaga JR, Zhang Q, Huerta S, Go VL, Heber D.(PubMed)
(3) Cytotoxic and insecticidal constituents of the unripe fruit of Persea americana by Oberlies NH1, Rogers LL, Martin JM, McLaughlin JL.(PubMed)