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Monday, 26 May 2014

Herbal Cayenne

Cayenne is also known as Cayenne Pepper, a red, hot chili pepper, belonging to Capsicum annuum, the family Solanaceae, native to sub-tropical and tropical regions. It has been used in traditional medicine to increases metabolism, enhance circulatory system and stomach and the intestinal tract, adjust blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, treat frostbite, muscles, arthritis, rheumatism, low back pain, strains, sprains, bruises and neuralgia, etc.

Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cayenne include capsaicin,  capsacutin oil, solaine, xanthenes, oleic acid, palmitic acid, etc.

1. Cayenne and weight loss
Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

The benefits
The prevalence of obesity is widespread in the Western world. In US, approximately 68% of the population are either over weight or obese. Weight loss with little or no side effects of organic chemical compound from plants have gone under extensive research. Capsaicinoids are a group of chemicals found in Cayenne, may have a potential benefits in relation to weight management. In fact, Capsaicinoids has exerted induced weight loss activities through increased energy expenditure, increased lipid oxidation and reduced appetite of which may be caused stimulation of the TRPV1 receptor. Other in the study of the same, suggested that a minimum dose of 2mg of capsaicinoids is needed to contribute to reductions in ad libitum energy intake and daily consumption of capsaicinoids may contribute to weight management through reductions in energy intake.


References
(1) "Severe pepper allergy in a young child" by Gimenez L, Zacharisen M(PubMed))
(2) Mechanisms underlying the hypertensive response induced by capsaicin" by Dutta A, Deshpande SB.(PubMed)
(3) Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures" by Gupta PJ.(PubMed)
(4) Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence by Whiting S, Derbyshire E, Tiwari BK.(PubMed)
(5) Could capsaicinoids help to support weight management? A systematic review and meta-analysis of energy intake data.

Whiting S1, Derbyshire EJ2, Tiwari B3.(PubMed)
2. Herbal Cayenne and cancers
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.

The benefits
Capsaicin, a chemical constituent found in cayenne is found to be effective in significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell death. In the exposure to human KB cancer cells, Capsaicin exerted its anti cancer effect by induced growth inhibition of KB cells apoptosis as it promotes the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as activation of caspase 9, 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase in KB cells. Other in the study of the same but with extract from spices like chili pepper, cloves, black pepper and black cuminto compare the in vitro anticancer activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts against the TE-13 (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma) cell line, suggested that
all extracts showed cytotoxic activity but aqueous extracts were found to be more potent than alcoholic extracts.



References
(1) "Severe pepper allergy in a young child" by Gimenez L, Zacharisen M(PubMed))
(2) Mechanisms underlying the hypertensive response induced by capsaicin" by Dutta A, Deshpande SB.(PubMed)
(3) Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures" by Gupta PJ.(PubMed)
(4) Capsaicin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human KB cancer cells by Lin CH, Lu WC, Wang CW, Chan YC, Chen MK.(PubMed)
(5) Cytotoxic potential of Indian spices (extracts) against esophageal squamous carcinoma cells.
Dwivedi V, Shrivastava R, Hussain S, Ganguly C, Bharadwaj M.(PubMed)
3. Cayenne and Breast cancer
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.


The benefits
Capsaicin found in red peppers of the genus Capsicum has been found to be effective in exerting its biological activities (anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic and chemopreventive) in many cancer cell lines. In breast cancer cell line MCF-7, treatment with capsaicin for 24 h resulted cells apoptosis in dose dependent manner through a caspase-independent pathway in MCF-7 cells. Other in the study of the same showed that Capsaicin extract extracts induced significant growth arrest and apoptosis in human breast and leukemia cancer cell lines in vitro with no significant effect on normal breast epithelial cells. These result suggested cayenne may be a potential agent in treating breast cancer.



References
(1) "Severe pepper allergy in a young child" by Gimenez L, Zacharisen M(PubMed))
(2) Mechanisms underlying the hypertensive response induced by capsaicin" by Dutta A, Deshpande SB.(PubMed)
(3) Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures" by Gupta PJ.(PubMed)
(4) Tumor cell growth inhibition is correlated with levels of capsaicin present in hot peppers by Dou D, Ahmad A, Yang H, Sarkar FH.(PubMed)(5) Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through caspase-independent pathway by Chou CC, Wu YC, Wang YF, Chou MJ, Kuo SJ, Chen DR.(PubMed)


4. Hebal Cayenne and Antioxidants


Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.

According to the Texas A&M University, the antioxidant activities of cayenne may be due to its
rich source of diverse bioactive compounds, including : hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and methanol:water, In high concentrations, the extracts exerted different measures of antioxidant activity, with DPPH radical-scavenging activity was strongly correlated with total bioactive compounds such as capsaicinoids, carotenoids, flavonoids and total phenolics(1). The study consisted Four cultivars (Bronowicka Ostra, Cyklon, Tornado, and Tajfun) of pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L., phenolics contents, showed a positive effect of the compound in exerting its antioxidant activities through elucidated in heat-induced oxidation in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system(2).
The Universidad Complutense de Madrid suusgested that the antioxidants exerted by cayenne may be due to the amount released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes, about 75% for total polyphenols, up to 49% for both beta-carotene and zeaxanthin, and up to 41% for beta-cryptoxanthin.(PubMed).
Other research suggested Organic growing showed to increased the level of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and vitamin C in sweet bell pepper, another member family of Capsicum annuum(4).


References
(1) Variation of antioxidant activity and the levels of bioactive compounds in lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) cultivars by Bae H1, Jayaprakasha GK, Jifon J, Patil BS.(PubMed)
(2) Antioxidant activity of the main phenolic compounds isolated from hot pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L) by Materska M1, Perucka I.(PubMed)
(3) Bioactive compounds of four hot pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.), antioxidant capacity, and intestinal bioaccessibility by Hervert-Hernández D1, Sáyago-Ayerdi SG, Goñi I.(PubMed)
(4) Characterisation of antioxidant compounds in sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under organic and conventional growing systems by Hallmann E1, Rembiałkowska E.(PubMed)

5. Herbal cayenne and Allergic rhinitis
arthritis, rheumatism, low back pain, strains, sprains, bruises and neuralgia, etc.
 Nonallergic rhinitisis defined as condition with symptoms resemble an allergy causes of ahiitis but  without a known cause. Chronic forms of rhinitis occurred in the absence of any detectable specific IgE against relevant aeroallergens in its broadest sense can be called chronic nonallergic rhinitis(1).

Non allergic rhinitis
 ICX72 or Sinus Buster, a proprietary homeopathic preparation of Capsicum annum, showed to exhibit significant differences in changes from baseline and improvement in nasal congestion, sinus pain, sinus pressure, and headache, at 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes, persisting at 60 minutes for nasal congestion and sinus pain inpatients with Nonallergic rhinitis(2).
The intranasal capsaicin spray, also showed a significant and long-term reduction of symptoms in nonallergic noninfectious perennial rhinitis patients, and five treatments of capsaicin on a single day at least is comparable to five treatments of capsaicin in 2 weeks, in a 30 nonallergic noninfectious perennial rhinitis patients randomized into two different treatment regimens: one group received capsaicin five times on the first day at 1-h intervals.(3)


References
(1) Nonallergic rhinitis by Lieberman P1, Pattanaik D.(PubMed)
(2) A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial comparing capsaicin nasal spray with placebo in subjects with a significant component of nonallergic rhinitis by Bernstein JA1, Davis BP, Picard JK, Cooper JP, Zheng S, Levin LS.(PubMed)
(3) Intranasal capsaicin reduces nasal hyperreactivity in idiopathic rhinitis: a double-blind randomized application regimen study by Van Rijswijk JB1, Boeke EL, Keizer JM, Mulder PG, Blom HM, Fokkens WJ.(PubMed)


6. Herbal cayenne and Cholesterol

Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place.

Capsaicinoids, the active compounds in chili pepper, showed to reduce plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol being unaffected, according to The Chinese University of Hong Kong, in hamsters study(1), as well as prevent ovarian hormone deficiency-induced hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the hepatic cholesterol synthesis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats(2). These anti Hypocholesterolemic effect may be as a result of stimulating conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by upregulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase expression (cholesterol regulator) and the increase in fecal total bile acid excretion, some researchers suggested(3).

References
(1) Capsaicinoids lower plasma cholesterol and improve endothelial function in hamsters by Liang YT1, Tian XY, Chen JN, Peng C, Ma KY, Zuo Y, Jiao R, Lu Y, Huang Y, Chen ZY.(PubMed)
(2) The hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in ovariectomized rats fed with a cholesterol-free diet was mediated by inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis by Zhang L1, Fang G, Zheng L, Chen Z, Liu X.(PubMed)
(3) Hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids by increased bile acids excretion in ovariectomized rats by Zhang L1, Zhou M, Fang G, Tang Y, Chen Z, Liu X.(PubMed)

7. Herbal cayenne and High blood pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. High blood pressure means raising pressure in your heart.If it stays high over time it can damage the body in many ways.
Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cayenne include capsaicin,  capsacutin oil, solaine, xanthenes, oleic acid, palmitic acid, etc.
Epidemiological studies linking cayenne in reduced hypertension have not been conclusive, the mechanism of these effect are still an mystery.

According to the, pepper (Capsicum) genus showed to exhibit both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential in many studies, probably through inhibition of related enzymes(1).
 Ingestion of large amount may cause an arterial hypertensive crisis, according to a case report at 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. There was a report of a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day(2).
Capsaicin also found to exhibit acute myocardial infarction with high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone if ingestion of large amount of peppers and of chili peppers(3).
This dual mechanisms presented in cayenne may not be explained by conventional medicine, traditional Chinese medicine provides this differentiation. Cayenne, yang in nature, promotes Qi movement of blood. In healthy individual, qi smooth movement reduce the necessary blood pressure in blood transportation. On the other hand, movement of qi was block and induced higher blood pressure due to the presence of high amount cholesterol cause of narrow blood vessel.

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References
(1) Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America by Ranilla LG1, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Shetty K.(PubMed)
(2) Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis by Patanè S, Marte F, La Rosa FC, La Rocca R.(PubMed)
(3) Capsaicin, arterial hypertensive crisis and acute myocardial infarction associated with high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone by Patanè S, Marte F, Di Bella G, Cerrito M, Coglitore S.(PubMed)

The Side Effects
1. It may cause allergic reaction in young children
2. It may also cause hypertense response if overdosed.
3. It may promote symptoms of acute anal fissure.
4. It may cause burning sensation to certain people in the first taste
5. Do not use cayenne pepper in young children
6. Etc.