People who turn to alternative medicine for treatment of disease in avoidance of adverse effects induced by conventional medicine should be patient. In compared to herbal medicine, food therapy takes significant longer in times to ease symptoms, depending to stages of the treatment which directly address to the cause of disease.
Epidemiological studies strongly suggested that intake of black bean may associate to reduced risk and treatment of various type of cancers(1)(2).
Cancer is a class of chronic condition characterized by the irregular cell growth in the body organs. Sometime, the cancer cells can spread to other tissues or organs depending to stages of cancer..
Black bean, a small roughly ovoid legume with glossy black shells, genus Phaseolus, belongings to the family Fabaceae can be bought in most grocery stores all around the year in dried and canned forms. It is believed that black bean was first domesticated growth in South America.
1. Liver Cancer
Liver cancer is a condition of the abnormal growth of the cells in the liver's tissue. According to statistics approximated 40,710 adults (29,200 men and 11,510 women) in the United States will be diagnosed with primary liver cancer this year.
According to the Stocking Hall, Cornell University, phytochemicals isolated from black bean such as triterpenoids, flavonoids, and other compounds exhibited antiproliferative activities against the HepG2 cells(3), the human liver cancer cell line.
The efficacy of black bean in ameliorated growth of liver cancer may be attributed to the presence of some potent antioxidants in expression of apoptosis.
Consumption of bean not only played a prominent role of gene expression(4) involved the regulation of gene Hspa8 in reduced risk of liver disease developed, but also addressed the important issue of attenuated hepatic stress or toxicity in rat model.
Increased bean consumption in rats exhibits changes indicative of hepatic damage, Dr. Daniell EL, the lead author said, "Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption is associated with reduced risk for a number of chronic diseases", such as liver cancer.
Dietary bean concentrations.is found to associate to the cholesterol 7α hydoxylase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes(4) increased with connection to the development of liver cancer, in a dose-dependent manner.
2. Breast Cancer
Breast cancer in most cases, starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. but in rare instance, breast cancer may arise from other areas of the breast.
In the study of water-soluble condensed tannins isolated from black beans against Hs578T breast cancer cells, the preparation at 0.24-24 microM in dose-dependent induced cancer cell death by apoptosis but did not affect the growth of normal cells(5), as shown by observation assay.
The efficacy of water-soluble black bean condensed tannins at 24 microM in suppressed the breast caner cells(5) may be attributed to the phytochemical in reduced coagulation of remained blood in stimulated cancer cell migration and regulated the growth of breast tumor in formation of new blood vessels.
According to the National Taiwan University, fermentation product of soybean, black bean, and green bean mixture (BN999) showed a significant effect in inhibited the growth of human breast cancer AU565 cells in increased expression of multiple apoptotic regulators in induced apoptosis(6).
The fermentation product also exerted an impressive activity in induced apoptosis in various human cancer cells but not in normal human cells, Dr, Chia JS, the lead author insisted.
Dr. Dong M, the lead researcher at the Cornell University, in the finding of major phytochemicals of black bean which may have a powerful effect in treatment of breast cancer suggested, that out of newly found flavonoids, only 6 (5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 19, 20) of them showed potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells(7).
Osteocarcinoma is a condition of bone cancer caused by irregular cell growth in bone, affecting mostly adolescents and young adults..
According to the The Chinese University of Hong Kong, hemagglutinin isolated from an edible legume, namely black bean, showed an anti proliferative activity(8) against tumor cell lines MG-63(8) and HepG2(8) but not the normal cell line.
Malignant osteocarcinoma cell treated with the phytochemical also exerted a significant effect in shrinking of tumor cells as well as inducing apoptosis.
The study also stated that hemagglutinin also induced cell death through interfering the first stage of tumor cell division in expression of protein, RNA, and DNA and inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization(8) in controlling plasma membrane of a muscle or nerve cell
Furthermore, the study also suggested that the efficacy of hemagglutinin in causing cell death may be attributed to the function of protein in increased regulation of pro inflammatory expressions(8)
Dr. Dan X, the lead author said, " a novel hemagglutinin from an edible legume (showed) a growth-inhibitory effect on osteocarcinoma and liver cancer cells" and " The hemagglutinating activity of this hemagglutinin was demonstrated to be ion dependent and stable over a wide range of temperature and pH values".
4. Prostate Cancer
According to the National Taiwan University,fermentation products BN999, included black bean processed an anti prostate cancer effect through expression of prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 cell line.
BN999, the product mixture induced cancer cell death by activating the protein gene involved pro cancer cell apoptosis via cell mediatory activities(9), including a network of membranous anatomical structure and double membrane-bound organelle in energy conversion.
Most importantly, BN999 target prostate and other cancer cell without affecting the normal human cells and inducing obvious side effects(9).
In the investigation of water-soluble black bean condensed tannins isolated from black beans showed a significant activity in induced cancer cell death by apoptosis without affecting the growth of normal cells, in dose dependent manner(10).
Additionally, the study also addressed that the efficacy of water-soluble in induced prostate cancer cell death may be attributed to direct effect in decrease cancer cell energy molecule and formation of cell structure.
Dr. Bawadi HA(10), the lead author indicated, after 24 h of injection, water-soluble black bean condensed tannins showed a strong reduced coagulation of blood in stimulated cancer cell migration and regulated mechanisms involved growth of prostate cancer in formation of new blood vessels.
5. Colon Cancer
Colon cancer is a medical condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in large intestine.
In a study of rats injected with azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer or saline and one week later administered an AIN, black bean (BB) and soy flour (SF)--based diet, researchers found that mice fed with black bean showed a significant expression in attenuated gene expression in coloncarcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation(11).
Others experiment to test the prevalence of high bean intake and low incidence of colon cancer in many Latin American countries in 53-wk-old weanling male F344 rats randomly assigned by weight to the following groups: control (11 rats), casein diet (21 rats), and bean diet (21 rats), with animals fed the casein and bean diets treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) once weekly for 2 wk, the results returned showed a significantly fewer colon adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05) in rat fed with bean diet in compared control and rats fed the casein diet(12).
Rats fed with bean diet also expressed a lesser in tumor multiplication observed by tumors per tumor-bearing rat than in casein-fed rats.
Dt. Hughes JS, the lead researcher said, "dry beans contain anticarcinogenic compounds capable of inhibiting AOM-induced colon cancer in rats. However, the specific anticarcinogenic components within dry beans have not been identified".
But suggested that the efficacy of bean in reduced colon cancer risk may be results of the dietary fiber, phytochemicals or other components within dry beans(12),...
Promisingly, the results of rats fed a modified AIN-93G diet (control) or diets containing 75% black beans or 75% navy beans for 4 wk, and then colon cancer initiated by administration of two injections of azoxymethane 1 wk apart, also postulated a lower incidence of colon cancer in rats fed the black bean (9%) in compared navy bean (14%) diets than in rats fed the control diet (36%) at 31 weeks(13).
Rats fed the black bean also significantly lower of total tumor multiplicity in compared to control(13).
The findings suggested that black bean with abundant bioactive chemical compounds such as genistein, flavonols and saponins.may be considered as functional food and integrated form of injection for reduced risk and treatment of various types of malignant tumors. However, raw black beans containing phytohenagglutinin can be toxic to liver in high amount(14).
(4) Dietary dry bean effects on hepatic expression of stress and toxicity-related genes in rats by Daniell EL1, Ryan EP, Brick MA, Thompson HJ.(PubMed)
(6) Fermentation product of soybean, black bean, and green bean mixture induces apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells by Chia JS1, Du JL, Wu MS, Hsu WB, Chiang CP, Sun A, Lu JJ, Wang WB.(PubMed)
(7) Phytochemicals of black bean seed coats: isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidative activities by Dong M1, He X, Liu RH.(PubMed)
(10) Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study cohort by Tseng M1, Breslow RA, DeVellis RF, Ziegler RG.(PubMed)
(12) Dry beans inhibit azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats by Hughes JS1, Ganthavorn C, Wilson-Sanders S.(PubMed)
(13) Consumption of black beans and navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) reduced azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats by Hangen L1, Bennink MR.(PubMed)