Tuesday, 16 January 2018

Herbal Therapy: Green tea In Modulated Fat Metabolism

Kyle J. Norton 

Green tea may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced abnormal fat metabolism, some scientists suggested.

Green tea, a precious drink processes numbers of health benefit known to almost everyone in Asia and Western world. However, as yin in nature herbal medicine or food, long term injection of large amounts may obstruct the balance of yin-yang, induced "yin excessive syndrome" or "yang vacuity syndrome" including weaken immunity and painful case of GERD,... according to traditional Chinese medicine's Yin-Yang theory.

Fat metabolism is a biological process converted lipid intake to energy for the body needs through breaking down fat into glycerol and fatty acids before being absorbed by the intestines.

In the evaulation of the mechanisms of actions of EGCG on bile acid homeostasis and lipid metabolism of green tea bioactive polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), researchers conducted a study included male C57BL/6J mice fed with a low-fat diet, a high-fat western-style diet or a high-fat western-style diet containing 0.32% green tea bioactive polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found that at 17 weeks of experiment, mice group fed with EGCG exhibits a strong effect in reduced body weight gain, mesenteric fat mass, serum cholesterol and severity of fatty liver.

Additional analysis indicated that green tea reduced expression above parameters was a result of  significantly elevated the mRNA levels of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase initiated by cholesterol in inhibition of bile acid synthesis in cholesterol metabolism, thus attenuated absorption of lipid.

Injection of green tea EGCG also increased the level of HMG-CoA reductase in inhibited cholesterol synthesis, biliary lipid secretion, and elevated blood cholesterol through activation of low-density lipoprotein receptors which play an important role of limiting step in lipid synthesis.

Moreover, green tea EGCG also elevated scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1) with functions as a receptor for high-density lipoprotein in meditating the uptake of HDL-derived cholesterol and cholesteryl ester in the liver as well as modulating and regulating certain pathways and networks involved cellular lipids in biological systems.

Dr. Huang J, the lead scientist in the joint study at the State University of New Jersey, said, "The intestinal bile acid content was significantly decreased by EGCG, while fecal excretion of bile acids, cholesterol and total lipids were increased" and "EGCG decreases bile acid reabsorption, results in lower intestinal bile acid levels, which further decreased the absorption of lipids".

Further differentiation of the green tea effect to examine the on lipid levels associated with obesity in C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet (ND), HFD and HFD with GT for 12 weeks, group with green tea extract and HFD expression a significant alternation of levels of several lipid metabolites observed by the partial least squares discriminant analysis score plot.

Mice group fed with high fat diet demonstrated decreased levels of lysophospholipids (LPLs) (lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylserine) which show a negative correlation with triglyceride hydrolysis and increased fat absorption in compared to normal diet group. These alternations were not found in mice group fed with HFD plus green tea.

Alternation of lysophospholipid was associated to substantial impact on lysophospholipid metabolism, in contribution of the onset or progression of obesity.

The restoration of lysophospholipids (LPLs) by green tea extract caused by long term high fat diet may be an indication of how green tea reduced expression of inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in obesity.

Interestingly, in the observation of injection of green tea extract in the regulation of hepatic fat metabolism in 36 male chickens fed GTPs at a daily dose of 0, 80 or 160 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks, researchers at the joint study lead by the Anhui Agricultural University, suggested that oral administration of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) significantly improves lipid metabolism through reduced hepatic lipid content and abdominal fat mass and abdominal fat mass accumulation which were correlated to onset and progression of over weight and obesity.

Additionally, the application also expressed a strong effect in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) which play an important role in skeletal muscle fatty acid utilization and in regulating growth and reprogramming metabolism, and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA) in modulation of  fat cell cycle stages and cytokinesis, thus reducing fat synthesis and production of pro inflammatory cytokines.

More importantly, green tea polyphenol also altered the mRNA levels and enzymatic activities in suppressed expression of enzymes involved PUFA in the liver in stimulated lipid synthesis and fat oxidation.

Taken together, green tea containing high amount of bioactive polyphenols, such as catechins may be considered as a functional food to reduce onset and progression of over weight and obesity. However, intake of green tea extract should be taken with care as acute liver toxicity has been reported in some cases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Green Tea Polyphenol EGCG Alleviates Metabolic Abnormality and Fatty Liver by Decreasing Bile Acid and Lipid Absorption in Mice by Huang J1,2, Feng S1,3, Liu A1, Dai Z1,4, Wang H1, Reuhl K5, Lu W6, Yang CS1,2.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of green tea on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet by Nam M1, Choi MS2, Choi JY2, Kim N3, Kim MS3, Jung S1, Kim J1, Ryu DH4, Hwang GS5.(PubMed)
(3) Green tea polyphenols alter lipid metabolism in the livers of broiler chickens through increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase by Huang J1,2, Zhou Y1, Wan B1, Wang Q1, Wan X1,2.(PubMed)
(4) Increase in serum and bile cholesterol and HMG-CoA reductase by lovastatin in rats by Yamauchi S1, Linscheer WG, Beach DH.(PubMed)

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