Sunday, 7 January 2018

Food Therapy: Eggplant in Ameliorated Risk and Treatment of Liver Cancer

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, All right reserved)

Eggplant may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced risk and treatment of liver cancer, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

Liver cancer is medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the issues of liver. At the later stage, the cancerous cell may travel a distance away to invade other healthy tissue and organs.

According to statistic, approximately 40,710 new cases (29,200 in men and 11,510 in women) of liver cancer and and intrahepatic bile duct cancer will be diagnosed in US 2017.

Glycoalkaloids (α-solamargine and α-solasonine), nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites found in eggplants and numerous Solanaceous plants including potatoes, and tomatoes expressed a strong inhibition of the growth of the liver tumor cells in culture and tumor growth in vivo.

More specifically, α-solamargine and α-solasonine induced apoptosis in cancer cells but not normal cells through functions in eliminated  old cells, unnecessary cells, unhealthy cells and cancer cells without causing  harm to healthy cells in the surrounding area. 

Further differentiation, also suggested that α-solamargine also suppressed liver cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis through cell cycle arrest.

Additionally, in HCT-116 cell line, anthocyanins isolated from eggplant displayed  a substantial antioxidant effect in inhibited reactive oxygen species(ROS) expression in promoting oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in induction of healthy cellular DNA damage in initiated early onset of liver cancer.

In compared to anthocyanins, administration of nasunin with glycosylation on C3 and C5 and an acyl group (p-coumaric acid) derivatives demonstrated the least effect on ROS reduction but exhibited ROS over expression in induction of cytotoxicity in colon cell lines, thus ameliorating tumor proliferation and site expansion, according to microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay.

Further differentiation, also indicated that nasunin and its deacylated derivatives protected healthy  cells from DNA damage through antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner.

Importantly, in the valuations carried out with four concentrations each (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microg/mL) of the the potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine; the disaccharides beta(1)-chaconine, beta(2)-chaconine, and beta(2)-solanine; the monosaccharide gamma-chaconine and their common aglycon solanidine; the tetrasaccharide potato glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine; the potato aglycon demissidine; the tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine, the trisaccharide beta(1)-tomatine, the disaccharide gamma-tomatine, the monosaccharide delta-tomtine, and their common aglycon tomatidine, and the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine and their common aglycon solasodine; and the nonsteroidal alkaloid jervine, researchers found that the glycoalkaloids isolated from all vegetables demonstrated as the most active compound in inhibited liver cancer in compared to colon cells.

In compared to anticancer drugs doxorubicin and camptothecin, all isolated compounds also exerted significant activity in decreased cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in concentration dependent manner.

Taking altogether, eggplant with abundant bioactive phytochemicals may be considered as a functional food used as secondary therapy to reduce risk and in combination of with standard chemo medicine for treatment of liver cancer.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells by Lee KR1, Kozukue N, Han JS, Park JH, Chang EY, Baek EJ, Chang JS, Friedman M.(PubMed)
(2) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1.(PubMed)
(3) Solasodine, Solamargine and Mixtures of Solasodine Rhamnosides: Pathway to Expansive Clinical Anticancer Therapies Bill E. Cham by International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2017, 8, 692-713

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