Sunday, 28 January 2018

Food Therapy: Eggplant and Its Glycoalkaloids in Reduced Risk and Treatment of Bone Cancer

Kyle J. Norton 

Eggplant may have a positive and substantial effect in reduced risk and treatment of bone cancer, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

Bone cancer is medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the issues of colon At the later stage, the cancerous cell may invade other healthy tissues and organs a distance away drom the original site.

According to statistic, early stage of bone cancer diagnosis of  5-year survival rate are approximately 85%.

Eggplant with abundant Glycoalkaloids, the nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites may be considered as a biomaker in determination of the state of severity of bone cancer and antioxidants through its derivatives (α-solamargine and α-solasonine in induction of bone cancer cell apoptosis according to Dr. Friedman M. in the article of "Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes".

In the evaluation of the effect of solamargine, a steroidal glycoalkaloid against human osteosarcoma
U2OS cells, researchers at the Shandong University showed that application of solamargine exerted a substantially reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma U2OS cells through over expression of mRNA and protein expressions of p53 in regulated the cell cycle in involvement of tumor suppression and Bax in expression of a pro-apoptotic regulators involved in a wide variety of cellular activities and activated apoptosis and reduced expression of Bcl-2 with function against cell apoptosis.

Further analysis also indicated that solamargine induced apoptotic and suppressible activity against osteosarcoma U2OS cell line was attributed to increase mitochondrial translocation of p53, induction of cell death through modulated loss of mitochondrial membrane of cancer cells and cytochrome c release during early stage of apoptosis.

Most importantly, green tea also activated the expression of caspase-9 which plays a central role of in apoptosis signal transduction, a cascade of biochemical reactions inside the cell in ignition of cell death and the regulation of cancer cell apoptosis and caspase -3, a caspase protein that interacts with  caspase-9 and dependent on mitochondrial cytochrome c release in initiation of anti cell profileration and tumor cell invasion.

Additional differentiation of the effect of p53, researchers found that although P53 may have a profound and positive inhibition of the tested cancer line, but its function also was reduced due to the presence of pifithrin-α, and mitochondrial translocation inhibitor pifithrin-μ, in inhibition of function of p53-mediated apoptosis, in prevented p53 binding to Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 at the mitochondria ..., thus partially reversing the anti proliferative activity of solamargine.

Dr. Li X1, the lead scientist said, "(the results finding, indicated that) Solamargine activates the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in U2OS cells via both p53 transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms".

Taking altogether, Eggplant with abundant glycoalkaloids derivative solamargine may be considered as a function food for ameliorated risk and used  as adjunct therapy with standard medicine for treatment of bone cancer.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1.(PubMed)
(2) Solamargine induces apoptosis associated with p53 transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells by Li X1, Zhao Y, Wu WK, Liu S, Cui M, Lou H.(PubMed)

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