Saturday, 20 January 2018

Food Therapy: Eggplant and Its Bioactive Glycoalkaloids in Ameliorated Risk of Melanoma

Kyle J. Norton 

Eggplant may have a potential and substantial effect in reduced risk and treatment of melanoma, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer characterized by irregular cell growth in the pigment-containing cell. At the later stage, the cancerous cell may invade other healthy tissues and organs a distance away from the original site.

According to statistic, approximately 87,110 new cases of invasive melanoma will be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2017.

The evaluation of eggplant  bioactive glycoalkaloids in reduced risk and treatment of melanoma was confirmed to associate to many differentiation, involving numbers of implication.

 In the evaluation of the effect of lycoalkaloids, the nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites found in numerous Solanaceous plants including eggplants in numbers of cancer cell lines, researchers showed that the phytochemicals express a significant effect in inhibition of the process of early stage of various types of cancer occurrence through induction of cancer cells apoptosis.

Further analysis, glycoalkaloids efficacy was attributed to the derived phytochemical compound solamargine in activation of antioxidant activity against formation of skin cancer through expression several biomarkers and signaling pathways.

In primary melanoma cell lines WM239 and WM115, application of solamargine with half inhibitory concentration IC50 demonstrated a profound effect in inhibited the growth of metastatic cancer cells and  initiated apoptosis, through over expression of  lysosomal membrane permeabilization induced by leaky lysosomes during cell death, detected by lysosomalgalectin puncta assay, without causing damage to normal and benign skin cells, namely, WM35.

Observation of the cellular necrosis also indicated that solamargine anti skin cancer effect was confirmed by over expression of cathepsin B which is considered as a biomaker in malignant lesions and various cancers by triggering extrinsic mitochondrial death pathway function in activated cellular apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria during the early stages of apoptosis and apoptotic tumor necrosis factor receptor-1(TNFR1).

Moreover, injection of the derivative solamargine also disrupted the intrinsic apoptosis pathway
through reduced expression of hILP/XIAP in blocking apoptosis through an interaction with an unknown TNF receptor associated factors (TRAF) in activated caspase-3 in mediated cleavage, increasing expression of proteins Bcl-xL, and Bcl2 in regulated anti- apoptosis, anti-cell cycle arrest and decreasing levels of apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) and Bax in suppression of tumor growth.

Unlike other phytochemicals such as green tea EGCG inhibited apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, eggplant derivative solamargine selectively triggered melanoma cancer cells death through only death receptors.

After taking account of other con founders, Dr, Sana S. said, " Solamargine showed high efficacy in vitro particularly against the vertical growth phase (forming a true tumor) melanoma cells".

Taken together, eggplant with abundant glycoalkaloids may be considered as a functional food to ameliorated risk, progression and treatment of melanoma. Intake of eggplant supplement should be taken with special care and only prescribed by experts.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Sources
(1) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1(PubMed)
(1) Solamargine triggers cellular necrosis selectively in different types of human melanoma cancer cells through extrinsic lysosomal mitochondrial death pathway by Sana S. Al Sinani, Elsadig A. Eltayeb, Brenda L. Coomber, and Sirin A. Adham(PMC)
(3) Solamargine triggers cellular necrosis selectively in different types of human melanoma cancer cells through extrinsic lysosomal mitochondrial death pathway by Sana S. Al Sinani, Elsadig A Eltayeb, Brenda L. Coomber and Sirin A. Adham(Cancer cell international)
(4) Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications by Brahma N. Singh,1 Sharmila Shankar,2 and Rakesh K. Srivastava*(PMC)

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