Saturday, 13 January 2018

Lentil (Other Sources) Lectins as Biomarkers and Treatment of Kidney Cancer

Kyle J. Norton

Lentil, a type of pulse and tiny legume that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber is a bushy annual plant of genus Lens to the Fabaceae family, native to Middle East.

Lentils' (plant sources') lectin may be considered as biomarkers for detection of the stage of varies types of cancer and treatment of renal cancer, some scientists suggested.

Renal or kidney cancer is serious medical condition characterized by cell growth disorderly in the tissues of the kidney. At the late stage, the cancerous cells can travel a distance away from the original site to infect other tissues and organs.

According to the investigation of plant lectin effect in risk of cancers, by resisting digestion, lectins after intake maintained full biological activity in binding to the cancer cell remembrances or. and receptors to induce cytotoxicity, thus reducing cancer cell proliferation and inhibiting tumor growth.

Further analysis also indicated that lectins can also incorporate into cancer cell as an antigen to cause agglutination and/or aggregation in induction of cytolysis and inhibited expression of polyamines, small organic cations that are essential for cancer cells to growth.

Moreover, plant lectin altered the production of various interleukins that are essential importance for the function of both innate and adaptive immunity by activated certain protein kinases in regulating signal transduction pathways which are important for both innate and adaptive immunity in control tumor progression.

Additionally, lectins can also bind to cancer cell mutated ribosomes, a cell structure that makes protein and inhibit protein synthesis, thus disrupting the critical cellular processes necessary for sustained cancer cell growth and modified the cancer cell phase 1 division and exhibited G2/M phase cell cycle arrest.

Interestingly, injection of lectins also inhibited telomerase expression in cancer cell activity in maintaining tumor progression and angiogenesis in stimulated production of new blood vessel to provide nutrients and oxygen to cancer cells proliferation and tumor expansion.

In clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), Galectin-9 (Gal-9), an animal lectin injection exerted a significant effect in inhibited cancer cell proliferation through binding to β-galactoside which is important to provide energy to tumor survival.

Further investigation of the expression of Gal-9 in a total of in 196 patients with ccRCC who underwent nephrectomy, with 48/196 patients died and 61/196 patients suffered recurrence to assess the prognostic value of Gal-9, suggested that Gal-9 expression not only associates positively with tumor size, but also induces a direct impact in the relative survival ratio, used to predict overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients.

Indeed, high levels of Gal-9 was found to associate correlately to poor survival and early recurrence and the expression of lectin also can be considered as a biomaker in diagnosed clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in early stage and lower of grade of tumor, node, and metastasis in patients who are at higher risk of the kidney cancer developing.

The finding evidences suggested that lectins from all sources may be considered as a therapeutic substances and biomarkers for treatment and monitoring the progression of kidney cancer which can be helpful in making medical decision in prescribing chemo-drugs..

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Lectin reactivity of alpha-fetoprotein in a case of renal cell carcinoma by Taketa K1, Ichikawa E, Sakuda H, Iwamasa T, Hayakawa M, Taga H, Hirai H.(PubMed)
(2) Lectins as bioactive plant proteins: a potential in cancer treatment by De Mejía EG1, Prisecaru VI.(PubMed)
(3) Galectin-9 predicts postoperative recurrence and survival of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma by Fu H1, Liu Y, Xu L, Liu W, Fu Q, Liu H, Zhang W, Xu J.(PubMed)

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